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air-coupled ultrasonics

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., 500 kHz, or 1 MHz being typical. Since the ability to detect defects is reduced at lower frequencies, parts are generally scanned with the highest frequency that can penetrate the part. Nevertheless, air-coupled ultrasonics are occasionally used for materials with low acoustic impedance (i.e., lower...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Ultrasonic waves in the megahertz region are severely attenuated in air and cannot propagate in a vacuum. An ultrasonic beam is similar to a light beam. Both obey general wave equations and each travels at a characteristic velocity that depends on the properties of that medium. Ultrasonic beams, like light...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Sensitive to cracks; fast Coupling agent required Ultrasonic imaging, SLAM Density variations, cracks D C Fast; high resolution High initial cost; coupling agent required Resonance testing Overall density, cracks D B Low cost; fast Does not give information on defect location Acoustic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The inspection of castings normally involves checking for shape and dimensions, coupled with aided and unaided visual inspection for external discontinuities and surface quality. This chapter discusses methods for determining surface quality, internal discontinuities, and dimensional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Wrought tubular products are nondestructively inspected chiefly by eddy current techniques (including the magnetic flux leakage technique) and by ultrasonic techniques. The methods discussed in this chapter include eddy current inspection, flux leakage inspection, ultrasonic inspection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... suitable for inspecting bar surfaces. An ultrasonic beam has the valuable property that it will travel for long distances practically unaltered in a homogeneous liquid or solid, but when it reaches an interface with air (for example, at a crack or at the surface of a metal body), it is almost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... to the A-scan. Besides the flaw detector, probes, and calibration blocks, thick liquid couplants are needed to transmit the ultrasound from the probe into the test piece. The test surface has an important bearing on coupling efficiency. It should be smooth and free from loose debris. Although ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.... Windstorms have significantly whittled down the size of ancient stone monuments in the Egyptian deserts—this is solid particle erosion. Sand is the solid particle and the air is the carrier of the sand (the fluid) and the source of the mechanical action. In summary, wear and erosion are both progressive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., with a coupling liquid used to provide a suitable sound path between transducer and test surface to increase the transmission of the ultrasonic pulse energy into the test piece. This is done to avoid having a layer of air between the probe and solid surface, which would transmit only a very weak beam. The sound...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ). Inspection Techniques A wide variety of techniques ranging from simple visual inspections through well-established methods such as radiography and ultrasonic testing to new and highly specialized methods are available for use. Some are identified subsequently. Not all the techniques are suitable for all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... that this process still requires collation of the ply packs or layers, usually a hand lay-up operation. Since the material contains no tack, soldering irons, heated to 800 to 1200 °F (425 to 650 °C), are frequently used to tack the edges to prevent the material from slipping. Handheld ultrasonic guns have also been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... volatile contaminants and parent metal components that are disfigured by oxide scale. The categories of joining atmospheres that are available and their interrelationships are shown in Fig. 3.1 . Generally, fluxes are needed only when carrying out the joining operation in air or other oxidizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... welding, forge welding, roll welding, coextrusion welding, cold welding, friction welding, friction stir welding, explosion welding, and ultrasonic welding. coextrusion welding cold welding diffusion welding explosion welding forge welding friction welding roll welding ultrasonic welding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.... Calculate solutions with tribological models. Simulate the tribosystem and test candidate couples. The low-cost solution to existing or potential tribology problems is option number one, which is to use existing tribological knowledge to solve the problem. For example, fretting damage is caused...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fatigue, those being matrix cracking, fiber breaking, crack coupling, delamination initiation, and delamination growth. The chapter describes each mechanism in detail along with related factors. It also discusses the primary differences between composites and metals, the effect of manufacturing defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in both acid and alkaline environments. anaerobic. Free of air or uncombined oxygen. anion. A negatively charged ion that migrates through the electrolyte toward the anode under the influence of a potential gradient. See also cation and ion. anode. The electrode of an electrolyte cell at which oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... waves. By measuring the velocity of the waves through a ductile iron casting, the nodularity is measured using samples of known nodularity for instrument calibration. A gel or glycerin can be used as a couplant, as ultrasonic waves need a medium other than air for transmission. Alternatively, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.9781627083232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion potential in a given environment. An example is the galvanic series for metals in soils, shown in Table 3 ( Ref 11 ). When these metals are electrically coupled, the metal with the most positive corrosion potential is cathodically polarized, reducing its corrosion rate, while the more negative...