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air-coupled ultrasonic testing

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... using ultrasonic transducers of (a) high and low penetration (ability to detect defects at distances within the solid), and (b) high and low resolution (ability to separate echoes from closely spaced defects). Source: Ref 1 Air is a poor transmitter of sound waves at megahertz frequencies. Also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., parts are generally scanned with the highest frequency that can penetrate the part. Nevertheless, air-coupled ultrasonics are occasionally used for materials with low acoustic impedance (i.e., lower-density materials) such as honeycomb assemblies. Air coupling has been used to inspect honeycomb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Standards Organization test method ISO 2738. When an object is immersed in a liquid, the liquid exerts an upward buoyant force that is equal to the product of the object volume and the density of the liquid. The difference in weight between an object weighed in air and its weight when suspended in water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... pressures can be leak tested at the foundry. Various methods are used, according to the type of metal being tested. One method consists of pumping air at a specific pressure into the inside of the casting in water at a given temperature. Any leaks through the casting become apparent by the release...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., the feeding of tubes to the unit and their withdrawal can be automated. Various audible and visible alarm systems and marking devices can be added. Normally, the water couplant used in the system is filtered and deaerated. Air entrapped in the water can produce false indications. Similarly, water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of the mechanical action of a fluid that produces erosion. Windstorms have significantly whittled down the size of ancient stone monuments in the Egyptian deserts—this is solid particle erosion. Sand is the solid particle and the air is the carrier of the sand (the fluid) and the source of the mechanical action...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... it reaches an interface with air (for example, at a crack or at the surface of a metal body), it is almost completely reflected. The technique most commonly used for the inspection of bars or bar-like workpieces is the pulse echo technique. Short pulses of ultrasonic energy are passed through the bar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... and subsurface flaws. A transducer probe is placed against a test piece, with a coupling liquid used to provide a suitable sound path between transducer and test surface to increase the transmission of the ultrasonic pulse energy into the test piece. This is done to avoid having a layer of air between the probe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... AFWALTR-79–4111, Air Force Materials Laboratory , 1979 13. Walter R.W. , Johnson R.W. , June R.R. , and McCarthy J.E. , Designing for Integrity in Long-Life Composite Aircraft Structures , STP 636, ASTM , 1977 , p 228 – 247 10.1520/STP27980S 14. Schaff J.R...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of crashworthy structures that rely on the fail-safe behavior of aramid composites under sustained high compressive loads. Being an organic fiber, aramid absorbs moisture. Aramid composites exhibit a linear decrease in both tensile strength and modulus when tested at elevated temperatures in air. The effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ,” 1999 • BS 5169, “ Specification for Fusion Welded Steel Air Receivers ,” 1992 • BS EN 13445, “ Unfired Pressure Vessels ,” 2002 • BS EN 13480, “ Metallic Industrial Piping ,” 2002 • BS EN 12953, “ Shell Boilers ,” 2002 • Cramer S.D. and Covino B.S. Jr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... R.L. , Ed., NACE International , 2001 12. Little B.J. , Wagner P.A. , and Mansfeld F. , Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion , Corrosion Testing Made Easy , Syrett B.C. , Ed., NACE International , 1997 13. Yunovich M. and Thompson N.G. , AC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... supply. Following heating, the workpiece was allowed to air cool for 4.3 s and then water quenched. The simulation and experimental results exhibit excellent agreement. Many commercial sorting bridges also compare the hysteresis loops of the standard and test specimens on the assumption...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... temperature, heat transfer during quenching, and air cooling. Figure 3.15 shows the selected two-dimensional section of the B-pillar and the finite-element model used for plane-strain simulation of hot stamping. Table 3.8 shows the input parameters for the sheet material 22MnB5. The process parameters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... superior to that of SLAM images at the same frequency [55] . SLAM cannot be applied to die attach inspection in packages with air cavities, such as ceramic DIPs and pin grid arrays, unless the lid is removed. Similar information as provided by SLAM can be obtained from a SAM operating in through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... laboratory corrosion tests increase the severity of the environment by exposing the materials to more concentrated solutions, higher-temperature solutions, or increased periods of wetness. The environment used might simulate a humid tropical area, the salty air of a seaside area, a salted road in winter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... is raised. Intergranular cracking also develops in systems that handle hydrogen sulfide. The cause can be traced to the formation of polythionic acids (H 2 S x O 6 , where x = 3, 4, 5) formed by the reaction of residual metallic sulfides on oil refinery equipment with moist air at room temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... a press or an autoclave. In this process, unconsolidated ply packs, to more readily promote ply slippage, rather than preconsolidated blanks, are placed between two flexible diaphragms. A vacuum is drawn between the diaphragms to remove air and provide tension on the lay-up. The part is then placed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... are oscillated to ensure uniformity of heating. In a closely related process, magnetically induced arc butt welding, the surfaces to be welded are heated by a rapidly rotating arc plasma. Generally, the process is conducted in the open air, with oxygen partially excluded from the joint area by the initial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1