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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... speed quenchant that will produce the desired hardness and case depth without cracking the part. In general with temperature and agitation as a constant, lower-carbon steels require the faster cooling rates that are produced by water or low-polymer-concentration quenchants. Since the low-carbon steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Webster G.M. , Hardening by Reheating and Quenching , Handbook of Residual Stress and Deformation , edited by Totten G. , Howes M. , and Inoue T. , ASM International , 2002 , p 248 – 295 19. Scott MacKenzie D. , Quenchant Agitation, Design and Characterization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... , Proposal to Monitor Agitation of Production Quench Tanks , Heat Treating: Including the 1997 International Induction Heat Treating Symposium—Proc. of the 17th Conf. , Milam D.L. , Poteet D.A. , Pfaffmann G.D. , Rudnev V. , Muehl-bauer A. , and Albert W.B. , Ed., ASM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the quenchant. Table 11.1 Quench values for several quenching media Agitation Quench severity, H Oil Water Brine None 0.25–0.30 0.9–1.0 2 Mild 0.30–0.35 1.0–1.1 2.0–2.0 Moderate 0.35–0.40 1.2–1.3 … Good 0.40–0.50 1.4–1.5 … Strong 0.50–0.80 1.6–2.0...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... MacKenzie D. , Quenchant Agitation, Design and Characterization , Steel Heat Treating Technologies , Vol 4B , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2014 , p 281 – 303 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923 9. Bates C.E. , Evaluation of Cooling Rates of “Fast” Oils , Lab Report , Southern...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... water to brine (a salt solution) and as agitation of the quench piece is increased. Heat-transfer rates vary enormously during a quenching operation, and the use of a single value of H to characterize it is an oversimplification. However, like most simplifications, it is quite useful for some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (1.0); other mediums are rated by comparison with this value. The relative cooling powers of the most common quenching mediums (water, oil, and brine or caustic solutions) are presented in Table 3 , which also shows the effect of agitation on cooling power. With agitation, the cooling power of any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... between 6 and 9. The mixture was agitated and aerated in the presence of a frothing agent and fatty acid collector. The froth contained the beryl concentrate. The ore was ground initially to –20 mesh, then further wet ground to –65 mesh in a ball mill, and deslimed by washing with 10 parts of water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... laboratory glassware) dissolved in 350 mL of water. If the rust is not removed at room temperature, try again with the solution heated to 90 °C (195 °F). The specimen (within the beaker) should be agitated in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 min. The specimen should be flushed with running water followed by an...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... 100 μm, powders tend to stick to containers, suspend in air, and exhibit uneven flow even with vibration or mechanical agitation. Binders are a means to compensate for these handling difficulties and are primarily applied to the intermediate-sized particles. Powders enable flexibility in component...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... current. In an active (nonpassive) alloy, this results in an increased corrosion current up to a point. Fig. 4 Effect of increasing the limiting current by, for example, increased agitation in the electrolyte. Beyond the dashed line, increasing the limiting current would have no further effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... made to increase the cooling rate in this stage. Agitation of the part or the quenchant and the use of brine solutions for quenching are effective in reducing the duration of the first stage of cooling. The effectiveness of a given quenching medium is ranked by a parameter referred to as its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to cracking and distortion. Because large temperature gradients can cause distortion, it is often necessary to use a milder quench such as oil or an air blast. Table 1 Quench value for several quench mediums Agitation Quench severity, H Oil Water Brine None 0.25–0.30 0.9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... (marine, industrial, internal fluid, etc.) Main constituents (identity and amount) Impurities (identify and amount) Temperature pH Degree of aeration Velocity or agitation Pressure Estimated range of each variable Mechanism of reaction with fluids Auto ignition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... throughout a part. In the thermal sense, normalizing is an austenitizing heating cycle followed by cooling in still or slightly agitated air. Typically, work is heated to a temperature of approximately 55 °C (100 °F) above the upper critical line of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram, and the heating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... locations of solidification grain boundaries of austenite in ferritic weld metal. Immerse specimen for about 15 s in a freshly prepared solution. Agitate well. Immerse specimen in 10 vol% hydrochloric acid solution. Wash and dry. To follow abrasion and precede macroetching, particularly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... possibilities. Fig. 4.5 The band structures of different classes of materials. Source: Ref 4.1 . In a semiconductor like silicon, the energy gap is so small that thermal agitation will increase the energy of a small number, n , of electrons enough to promote them into the conduction band, as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the solidification process, the thermal agitation of the atoms in the liquid decreases, allowing small random aggregations of atoms to form into small crystalline regions called embryos. An embryo is a small cluster of atoms that has not yet reached a large enough size to become stable and grow...