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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... asymmetric parts Linear stretch forming Creep forming Age forming Die quench forming Bulging Tube hydroforming Expanding Dimpling Electromagnetic forming Explosive forming Incremental Forming ( Section 2.8 ) Spinning Shear forming Hybrid Forming Processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... heating. It describes the intermediate phases that are formed during solidification between the two extremes of substitutional solid solution on the one hand and intermetallic compound on the other. The chapter concludes with a section on strain aging in low-carbon steels that allows the interstitial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... This chapter examines the metallurgy, composition, processing, and mechanical properties of aluminum and its alloys, both cast and wrought forms. It also covers heat treating and basic temper designations, including annealed, work hardened, solution heat treated, and solution heated treated and aged...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... binary aluminum phase diagram and typical precipitation-hardening heat treatment for aluminum. Source: Ref 2 Alloys that harden by precipitation hardening do so by forming coherent precipitates within the matrix. The first step in the aging process is the congregation of solute atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... work in the product before aging. For example, solution-treated Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al is often cold formed prior to aging. The stored energy (residual cold work) assists the aging process and results in increased strengths. Although solution-treated Ti-15-3 would not age measurably at 205 °C (400 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... is adequate for parts formed from strip or sheet. Rapid cooling from the annealing or solution treating temperature does not suppress the aging reaction of some alloys, such as Astroloy; these alloys become harder and stronger. (b) Nominal temperature; 650 to 705 °C (1200 to 1300 °F) is permissable. (c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... hardening do so by forming coherent precipitates within the matrix. The first step in the aging process is the congregation of solute atoms in the matrix lattice. These solute-rich regions are called clusters and are the embryos for nucleation. Solute atoms then diffuse to the clusters from the surrounding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 650 °C at 650 °C Weldment Cracks No cracks No cracks No cracks No cracks Cracks Cracks PWHT (a) No cracks No cracks … … No cracks No cracks No cracks Aged (b) No cracks … … No cracks … Cracks Cracks CW (c) Cracks … No cracks No cracks … Cracks Cracks HT...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... be worked high in the alpha-beta region to obtain an intermediate microstructure with a mixture of equiaxed and acicular alpha. 28.6.1 Stress Relief 28.6.2 Annealing 28.6.3 Solution Treating and Aging 28.6.4 Heat Treating Control Titanium is difficult to form at room temperature and exhibits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (1400 °F) for 5 hours, water quenching or air cooling, then aging at 300 to 350 °C (550 to 600 °F) for 5 hours. Copper alloys containing nickel and silicon in a ratio to form the phase Ni 2 Si also are precipitation hardenable. These alloys are hardened by quenching from a temperature of 900 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and aged titanium alloys Age hardening is a very prevalent type of nonferrous heat treatment primarily used for the purpose of increasing hardness, yield strength, and/or tensile strength. Eutectoid transformations, which form the basis of a number of steel heat-treatment practices, is much less...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... are less susceptible to oxidation than fine silver. Ag-3Pd alloy is used as the negative contact paired with Ag-22.6Cd-0.4Ni in low-voltage dc circuits. Silver and palladium form a complete solid solution, and their alloys have very good fabricability. Gold increases hardness and improves oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of Wrought Al-Mg Alloys to Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 15 , 1959 , p 55 – 62 10.5006/0010-9312-15.2.19 10. Bhattamishra A. and Lal K. , Influence of Aging on Corrosion Behavior of Al-Mg-Si Alloys in Chloride and Acid Media , Z. Metallkd. , Vol 89 , 1998 , p 793 11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., if the austenite is made very stable by further alloying additions, a precipitation reaction can still be made to occur by the same type of aging treatment without martensite ever forming. The precipitation takes place in austenite and therefore results in lower room temperature strength than that of which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... particles (a) T β is the β transus temperature for the particular alloy in question. (b) In more heavily β-stabilized alloys such as Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo or Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, solution treatment is followed by air cooling. Subsequent aging causes precipitation of α phase to form an α – β mixture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... of solute atoms to high-energy sites such as dislocations, dislocation tangles, and vacancies within the crystal lattice producing distortion of lattice planes and forming concentrations of subcritical crystal nuclei. With continued exposure at aging temperature, these sites reach, or fail to reach...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... aging and formed a nonmetallic compound with their own boundary between them and the aluminum, the strength decreased. These are larger particles, and the distance between them allowed dislocations to move more freely through the metal. Metals researchers now had a number of tools to study...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... for Metals , 1972 , p 157 – 192 Fig. D.1 Laves phase (white islands) has precipitated at dendrites in the gamma matrix. Optical microscope, original magnification 250x. Condition: Solution treated and aged—solution annealed 1 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F), air cooled, reannealed 1 h at 980 °C (1800 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to 1600 °F) to prevent carbide precipitation. Annealing is used mainly to reduce hardness and increase ductility to facilitate forming or machining, prepare for welding, relieve stresses after welding, produce specific microstructures, or soften age-hardened structures by resolution of second phases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... and 6.70 wt% C; however, most cast irons contain 2 to 4 wt% C. Fig. 3 The Fe-Fe 3 C diagram. Source: Ref 2 As shown in Fig. 3 , carbon forms a series of solid solutions with iron, as indicated by the δ, γ, and α fields. However, carbon has very limited solubility in iron. The maximum...