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age hardening

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... control. The mechanism of precipitation hardening is parallel to that used to strengthen aluminum alloys in which the precipitation of a coherent second phase from a supersaturated solid solution is produced by an aging heat treatment. The coherent precipitate strains the lattice and impedes the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... precipitate dispersed in the matrix, and (2) there must be a degree of lattice matching between the precipitate particles and the matrix (i.e., the precipitate must be coherent). Precipitation hardening is also known as age hardening or aging, to indicate that the resulting strength increase develops...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... similar increase. This increase is called precipitation hardening, age hardening, or simply aging. As steel becomes harder and stronger, its ductile properties generally decrease. In higher-carbon steels, a similar change is noted, although to a lesser degree. The effects of aging may still be plainly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... hardening or aging Sintering of powdered metals In most of these applications, induction heating is used to selectively heat only the portion of the workpiece that requires treatment (Ref 2) . This usually means that the process can be accomplished in a relatively short time and with high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and precipitation-hardening. In addition, information on special considerations for stainless steel castings is also provided. The heat treatment processes explained in the chapter are preheating, annealing, stress relieving, hardening, tempering, austenite conditioning, heat aging, and nitride...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... atoms Heat treatments are routinely given to superalloys to develop properties or complete a chemical process treatment. The most common heat treatments are: Stress relieving In-process annealing Full annealing Solution annealing Coating diffusion Precipitation (age) hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., austenitizing, tempering, aging, and conditioning. thermal processing austenitic stainless steel ferritic stainless steel duplex stainless steel precipitation-hardenable stainless steel soaking annealing stress relieving austenitizing tempering aging THE THERMAL...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... for hardening or strengthening, namely solution treating and aging. Examples are presented for heat treating of two commercially important nonferrous alloys, one from the aluminum-copper system and one from the copper-beryllium system. aging annealing cold working nonferrous alloys solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes used in manufacturing to thermally alter the properties of metals and alloys. It begins with a review of the iron-carbon system, the factors that affect hardenability, and the use of continuous cooling transformation diagrams. It then explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... Fig. 5.9 Effect of the heat of welding, brazing, or soldering on the properties (top) and microstructure (bottom) of an age-hardened precipitation hardenable alloy. Source: Ref 5.6 , p 478 Steels that contain sufficient carbon to be hardened by martensitic formation on quenching and then...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the common nonferrous alloys that can be hardened through heat treatment. The nonferrous alloys covered include aluminum alloys, cobalt alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. age hardening aluminum alloys cobalt alloys copper alloys heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... precipitation of intermetallic compounds during age hardening. The term marage was suggested by the age hardening of the martensitic structure. ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... heat treatment and can be dramatically affected by other processing or service temperature exposure. The precipitation-hardened alloys distinguish themselves by exhibiting superior mechanical properties after being precipitation treated (aged). Fusion leads to dissolution of the hardening phases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
.... Standard forged IN-718 is forged above the δ solvus. Completely recrystallized structures in the range of ASTM 4–6 are obtained. The component is strengthened by solution treatment above the solvus and use of a two-step age-hardening treatment. Fine grain IN-718 may have initial forging operations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... been hardened by cold work are designated with an “H.” If the alloy has been solution treated and then aged, either by natural or artificial aging, it is designated by a “T,” with the specific aging treatment designated by the numbers “1” through “10.” Table 2.5 Temper designation for aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Quenching is a critical step in the production of hardened steel. This chapter untangles some of the complexities of the quenching process and its effect on the microstructure and properties of various steels. Making extensive use of cooling curves, it sheds light on the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... for more information and ( Ref 2 ). Precipitation hardening was discovered in the early 1900s by a German engineer named Alfred Wilm ( FIG. 4.7 ). He was born in 1869 in Nieder-Schellendorf, Germany. Wilm was interested in chemistry at an early age and later attended the Royal Institute of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... amounts of a precipitate and changes in precipitate shape and size, as mentioned previously. Before the age-hardening peak is reached during precipitation, the operative strengthening mechanism involves cutting of γ′ particles by dislocations and strength increases with increasing γ′ size ( Fig. 12.3 ) at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... elevated temperature, followed by rapid cooling, then age hardening by heating to an intermediate temperature. There is, however, considerable difference in techniques used for various grades. The metallurgy of precipitation hardening stainless steels is complex and cannot be completely covered herein...