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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... element may be detected by the yellow precipitate that forms when the test solution shown in Table 11.1 is applied at 70 to 140 °F (21 to 60 °C) to the suspected surface. Table 11.1 Test solution to check for lead contamination Chromic acid, 10 wt% Sodium chlorate, 1.5 wt% Water, 88.5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... no surface disturbance can be tolerated, either electrolytic polishing (also called electropolishing ) or chemical polishing is preferred. Alternatively, vibratory polishing with (basic) colloidal silica, acidic alumina suspensions, or attack polishing agents added to these abrasives (or to α or γ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... show very low rates of uniform corrosion in many environments. The metallurgy and processing of a particular grade are designed to provide passivity in a given environment. The environment can be too aggressive to allow passivity to be maintained either by being too reducing, as with some acid media...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Influence of pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) to fatigue strength in NaCl solution versus in air. Source: Ref 2 The duplex alloys offer important advantages in performance over the austenitic grades in a number of significant aggressive media, including sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... selection of a cleaning procedure greatly depends on the degree of cleanliness required and subsequent operations to be performed. Abrasive blasting produces the lowest degree of cleanliness. Solvent, solvent vapor degrease, emulsion soak, alkaline soak, alkaline electroclean, alkaline plus acid cleaning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Examples of Wet Etch Recipes (Courtesy of ON Semiconductor) Layer/material Etchant Temperature Aluminum (pure) and Al alloy (> 95% Al & < 5% Cu or Si) Phosphoric Acid: Nitric Acid: Acetic Acid: DI Water 50°C Gold Aqua Regia: HCL: HNO 3 3: 1 Room temp TiN, TiW, Ti & W H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... levels of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, chlorides, and acidity. This chapter reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods (OCTGs), line pipe, offshore platforms, and refinery equipment. The petroleum industry has driven large segments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is the chemical dissolution of the oxide scale. The acids commonly used are nitric (HNO 3 ), hydrofluoric (HF), and sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ). HCL, which is commonly used to pickle carbon steel, is not recommended for stainless because it locally attacks (i.e., pits) the surface. HNO 3 is an oxidizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... some versatile alloys are capable of serving effectively in multiple capacities. For example, alloy 718 (UNS N07718) resists corrosion in organic acids, alkalies and salts, and seawater; it is resistant to high-temperature oxidation, carburization, and nitridation; and it exhibits high strength at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...”) process was introduced in 1937, replacing the sulfite process. In the kraft process, the lignin-connecting wood fibers are dissolved under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure in acidic conditions of pH 2.0 to 4.0. This leaves a long fiber, which enables paper of high strength, hence the name...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 2 to 5% nitric acid (HNO 3 ) with methyl alcohol, a mixture often called nital—“nit” for the acid and “al” for the alcohol. This process is known as etching, which causes the shiny surface to become a dull color. If the sample is now viewed in an optical microscope at a magnification of 100×, it is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... molybdenum, then corrosion resistance is also increased. With small exceptions, that is the rationale of austenitic grade design. Silicon is used as an alloy to promote oxidation resistance and resistance to corrosion by oxidizing acids. Copper is used to promote resistance to sulfuric acid. Rare earths make...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... adhesive durability and longevity depend on the stability and bondability of the adherend surface. The effects of several different surface preparations on aluminum adherends are shown in Fig. 9.2 . Phosphoric acid anodizing (PAA) and chromic acid anodizing (CAA) are both considered acceptable surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... steel, both of which are permissible, if not optimal, food contact materials. Aluminum releases aluminum ions into solution of both cooking oil and 3% acetic acid at nearly equal rates of 15 mg/cm 3 in 30 days. Carbon steel releases iron at over 100 mg/cm 3 in the same period. Stainless, however...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... are not changed frequently. Sometimes, contaminants can be airborne. This may occur if dust or paints are present. Some processes use etchants with a subsequent rinse. Very small-diameter wires are produced by exposing a larger-diameter wire to an acid etch to reduce the diameter and then...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... reaction. A second requisite condition for fluxing to occur is that the acidity (or basicity) of the molten salt be such that the oxide scale is thermodynamically unstable, therefore favoring the formation of a nonprotective (soluble) reaction product. The liquid sulfate medium is important, because...