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acidic environments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... recognized the exceptional corrosion resistance of titanium in natural water, oxidizing environments, acidic brines, and many other environments since it was commercialized in late 1948 ( Ref 14.3 – 14.6 ). This chapter discusses corrosion resistance of titanium. Titanium is, by nature, an active-passive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... erosion corrosion corrosion rate sulfuric acid Summary Introduction Single- and Dual-Environment Systems Corrosion Types Stress Corrosion Cracking Erosion Specific Environments References References 1 Sandvik Materials Technology , www.smt.sandvik.com , accessed June...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... sulfide or other hydrogen-charging environments ( Ref 2.7 ). Intergranular cracking (along prior-austenite grain boundaries for quenched and tempered steels) is commonly observed in neutral or acidic environments—for example, aqueous chloride solutions ( Ref 2.1 , 2.5 ). Intergranular SCC has also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The characteristics include: conductivity of the solution, acidity and alkalinity, oxidizing power, degree of ionization, and solubility in the solution. These characteristics, in combination with the characteristics of the metal, will determine the corrosion behavior of a metal/environment combination. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., caustic, polythionic acid, and high-temperature environments and the correlating effects on austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. It also discusses the contributing effects of sensitization and hydrogen embrittlement and the role...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous environments. It describes the chemical reactions that drive the corrosion process, the conditions required for equilibrium, and the factors that affect corrosion resistance. It discusses the stability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Breakdown and the Role of Inhibitors Various oxidizing species can effectively inhibit the corrosion of titanium in reducing acid environments when present in very small concentrations. The dissolved oxidizing species serve to depolarize cathodic reactions. On titanium alloy surfaces this passivates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Acids Corrosion of Type 304 Stainless Steel in Sulfuric Acid In principle, if the anodic polarization curve of a metal is known for a given environment and the cathodic reduction curves of reducible species in the environment are known, superposition of these curves should permit prediction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... such as manganese sulfide inclusions, sigma and chi phases, chromium depleted zones, and alloying element segregation due to coring produced by weld solidification. However, PREN provides some guidance for alloy selection for service in oxidizing chloride or acidic environments. Among the proprietary stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... acid Combinations of alloys and environments subject to selective leaching Table 15.4 Combinations of alloys and environments subject to selective leaching Alloy Environment Element removed Brasses Many waters, especially under stagnant conditions Zinc (dezincification) Gray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... for estimating corrosion performance Corrodent variables Environment type (marine, industrial, internal fluid, etc.) Main constituents (identity and amount) Impurities (identify and amount) Temperature pH Degree of aeration Velocity or agitation Pressure Estimated range of each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... by direct reaction of the metal with high-temperature gases and by condensation of water and absorption of the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen to produce aqueous acid environments Corrosion of turbine blades in gas turbines by hot combustion gases Corrosion of metallic surgical implant materials used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... diagrams Environment pH, conditions E , V-SHE A → strong acid 0, strongly reducing 0 B → strong acid 0, mildly oxidizing 0.5 C → strong acid 0, strongly oxidizing 1.0 D → neutral 7, reducing −0.3 E → neutral 7, oxidizing 0.5 F → strong alkaline 14, strongly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of Passivity and Repassivation , Passivity of Metals , Frankenthal R.P. and Kruger J. , Ed., The Electrochemical Society , 1978 , p 285 – 327 30. Lee I. , “ Polarization and Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel and Alloy AL6X in Acid Chloride Environments ,” master’s thesis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... coatings for improved high-temperature oxidation resistance Each of these coating methods is described in Chapter 9 . Inhibitors Inhibitors find their major uses in acid-pickling solutions, acidic service environments, steam systems, and neutral and near-neutral aqueous solutions. Inhibitors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and alloys are widely used in corrosive environments. At one end of the spectrum, they are used for water piping and food preparation. At the other end, they are vital to the operation of many chemical plants dealing with aggressive acids and alkalis. There are two main reasons why nonferrous materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... this occurs in the atmosphere, acid rain is formed, which is a severe environment for metal structures. The movement of the electrons from anodic to cathodic sites in a metal is a result of the difference in Gibbs free energy between the anode (higher level) and the cathode (lower level). This results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in manganese content) may lead to increased localized corrosion, but microalloyed steels are not susceptible. Tramline corrosion is a term applied to preferential HAZ corrosion concentrated at the fusion boundaries and has been observed in acidic aqueous environments such as acid mine waters...