1-20 of 53 Search Results for

acid rain

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... oxides that form on the surface of beryllium and their ability to withstand acids, bases, and corrosive agents found in rain and seawater. It explains how carbides, inclusions, ions, and impurities contribute to corrosion damage, particularly pitting, and how corrosion reduces the ductility and fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in the moisture formed on the metal surface exposed to industrial and urban atmospheres. Typically in these sites, the atmosphere may be contaminated by SO 2 , which can be converted to H 2 SO 3 and then to H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) in the presence of moist air. When this occurs in the atmosphere, acid rain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of interdisciplinary studies that have demonstrated its innocuousness even under conditions of heavy acid rain on freshly abraded surfaces ( Fig. 9 ) ( Ref 11 ). Fig. 9 Graphic depicting low release of metal ions from two grades of stainless steel (304 and 316) to the environment, based on a 4-yr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... environments, etc.) with deleterious man-made environmental contributions (road salts, atmospheric pollutants and emissions, and acid rain) provide a uniquely aggressive corrosive environment for automobiles. The goal of this chapter is to point out the connection between the characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be successfully introduced. These include the following: Atmospheric corrosion, including humidity, and both natural and man-made pollutants Soil corrosion, as determined by such factors as moisture content, level of electrical conductivity, acidity level, amount of dissolved salts, and aeration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... severe effects ( Ref 27 ). Copper is the heavy metal most commonly encountered in applications of aluminum. A common example is rain runoff from copper roof flashing, causing corrosion of aluminum gutters. A copper-ion concentration of 0.02 to 0.05 ppm in neutral or acidic solutions is generally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., the deteriorating effect under normal long-term service condi- tions. acid rain. Atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 5.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids washed down...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... surface was totally oxidized. The corrosion product was primarily beryllium oxide with a few percent of beryllium nitride. Anodizing the beryllium in chromic acid before high-temperature oxidation lengthened the induction period. Fig. 26.2 Effect of temperature on the beryllium oxidation rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chlorine gas coolers in chloralkali plants, and pressure acid-leach internals for urea processing. Following the 1950s, applications were developed using the engineering-related properties of titanium, such as strength. Ordnance and ballistic armor were used in the 1960s; deep submersible submarine hulls...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a corrosive solution that attacks the protective oxide on the material ( Ref 31 ). Airplane takeoffs and landings near the ocean can lead to Cl – ingress, acid rain can cause pH effects, and simple maintenance procedures (wash and deicing solutions) may lead to harmful crevice effects over the life...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... discontinuities in the oxide film on aluminum exposed to atmosphere, fresh or salt water, or other neutral electrolytes. Since, in highly acidic or alkaline solutions, the oxide film is usually unstable, pitting occurs only in a pH range of about 4.5 to 9.0. The pits can be minute and concentrated, or they can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... in aqueous solutions because its oxides are soluble in many acids and bases, yielding Al 3+ ions in acids and AlO 2 − (aluminate) ions in bases. There are, however, instances when corrosion does not occur outside the passive range, for example, when the oxide film is insoluble or when...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., as with some acid media, so that passivating species cannot form or by being too oxidizing so that the oxidized species that normally affect passivity are no longer stable. The former is called dissolution in the active state, while the latter is termed transpassive dissolution . Intelligent design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is also increased. With small exceptions, that is the rationale of austenitic grade design. Silicon is used as an alloy to promote oxidation resistance and resistance to corrosion by oxidizing acids. Copper is used to promote resistance to sulfuric acid. Rare earths make a more stably oxidation-resisting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Particulate matter, sulfates, nitrates Meteorology Wind speed Wind direction Relative humidity (dew point) Temperature Solar radiation Rainfall volume and intensity Others Test specimen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) ( Ref 2 , 3 , 7 ). These reactions can be represented as ( Ref 3 ): (Eq 1) Fe → Fe 2 + + 2 e −  (Anodic  reaction) (Eq 2) H 2 CO 3 + e − → HCO 3 − + H   ( Cathodic  reaction ) The overall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in low-carbon steel ( Ref 8.3 ). Methods to reveal austenitic grain size Table 8.1 Methods to reveal austenitic grain size Method Comments Picric acid solutions Used for a wide range of steels having martensitic or bainitic structures Room-temperature etch Unpredictable, does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2