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acid electrolytes

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for the silver-gold system in acid electrolyte. These results are subsequently discussed further. Another major example of dealloying is graphitic corrosion that occurs in gray cast iron. Gray cast iron has a continuous graphite network in its microstructure that is cathodic to iron and remains behind...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., 54 mL HClO 4 (70%) 58–66 45 s (c) 11 mL HClO 4 (60%), 65 mL methanol (absolute), 24 mL butyl cellosolve 26–28 ~3 min (d) Electrolytes composed of HClO 4 (60%) and glacial acetic acid 940 mL acetic acid, 60 mL HClO 4 20–60 1–5 min (e) 900 mL acetic acid, 100 mL HClO 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... steel screen that was exposed to printing press exhaust fumes. (a) Unetched, picture width ~6 mm. (b) Enlarged view of the cracks. 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch, picture width ~1.5 mm. Source: Ref 15.5 , courtesy of M. Chaudhari Fig. 15.14 Pourbaix diagram (metal potential vs. pH...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... must be performed to reveal the microstructural constituents. Fig. 8.6 Hot cracking in a weld of 309 stainless steel. The crack follows the branches of the dendrites. Electrolytic etch with 60% nitric acid and 40% water using 5 V. 500× Attack-Etching The chemical attack-etching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...). Further, the cladding of thin-wall (1.5 mm, or 0.060 in.) irrigation pipe and culvert sheet greatly extends the time to perforation in aggressive waters. A commercial surface treatment unique to aluminum is anodizing. The object to be treated is immersed as the anode in an acid electrolyte...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Precipitation and wash are necessary to reject nitrates that interfere with the electrowinning step. The precipitates contain roughly 1 wt% Be. The washed precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid to form a copper-sulfate-base electrolyte. After electrolysis, lean electrolyte solutions typically have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Procedure Remarks Metallographer 1. Electrolytic: Room temperature. Stainless steel cathode. 20–40 s in fuming nitric acid … Noland et al. [1948] 2. For examination under polarized light, no etch is necessary. To develop contrast for bright-field work, 2 vol% hydrofluoric acid may be used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... or glycerin) that reduces ionization, and an oxidizer (such as hydrogen peroxide, Fe 3 + , or Cu 2 + ). In some etchants one component serves two of these functions, such as nitric acid in nital. In electrolytic etchants, the applied current acts as the oxidizer. Because etching involves controlled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Esters of Phosphoric Acid , J. Chem. Soc. , p 174 – 182 10.1039/jr9610000174 Hopkins B.S. , and Meyer A.W. , 1924 . The Electrolytic Production of Beryllium , Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 45 , p 475 – 480 Hyde K.R. , Robinson P.L. , Waterman M.J...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... be performed with an abrasive slurry applied to the wire, by a chemical solution (generally acidic) dripped onto the wire, or by electrolytic action. Although cutting rates are very low, the deformation produced is negligible. Wire saws employing abrasives are quite popular in the electronics industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... Barrier coatings are used to prevent the electrolyte from reaching the component surface. Examples of barrier coatings include painted steel structures, steels lined with thick acid-proof brick, steels lined with rubberlike materials, or steels electroplated with a noble (see Table 1 ) metal (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... to to understand rates of corrosion. The discussion covers two kinetic processes, namely electrode reactions at the cathode and anode and conduction of ions in the electrolyte. The chapter also provides information on passivation and its effect on polarization diagrams. corrosion kinetics passivation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... slush, spray emulsion in a single stage, hot rinse, hand wipe Hot alkaline soak, hot rinse (hand wipe, if possible) electrolytic alkaline, cold water rinse Continuous high production Conveyorized spray emulsion washer Alkaline soak, hot rinse alkaline spray, hot rinse Alkaline or acid (d) soak...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Aluminum alloys NaCl-H 2 O 2 solutions NaCl solutions Seawater Air, water vapor Copper alloys Ammonia vapors and solutions Amines Water, water vapor Gold alloys FeCl 3 solutions Acetic acid-salt solutions Inconel Caustic soda solutions Lead Lead acetate solutions Magnesium alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in austenitic alloys Vilella’s reagent 1 g picric acid, 5 mL HCl, 100 mL alcohol Use hot Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mn steels; reveals austenitic grain boundaries Source: Ref 2 Typical etchants used for microscopic examination Table 6 Typical etchants used for microscopic examination Electrolytes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... composition. Some, however, are widely known by a name associating them with the microscopist who developed them, and this name is also identified where appropriate. Water, wherever listed, should be taken to be distilled water, or water of equivalent purity. All acids should be taken to be concentrated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to structures that are exposed to a continuous bulk electrolyte (i.e., structures that are immersed in water, buried in the soil, or encased in concrete). The method has been used for more than 175 years and is applicable to virtually all metals, although it is primarily used for steel. Common applications...