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acid corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... such as waterwall, fuel ash, and hot corrosion, acid dew-point or cold-end corrosion, and polythionic acid corrosion. It also addresses stress corrosion cracking and includes relevant case studies. acid dew point corrosion boiler tubes fire-side corrosion fuel ash corrosion hot corrosion polythionic acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and that the resistance can be extended into the “reducing-acid” region by adding a small amount of palladium. It describes how different grades of titanium respond to different forms of attack, including uniform, crevice, and galvanic corrosion. It also identifies applications where corrosion is often a concern...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... , “ Effect of Organic Chloride Contamination of Crude Oil on Refinery Corrosion ,” Paper 694, presented at Corrosion/2000 , NACE International, 2000 • Kane R.D. and Cayard M.S. , “ A Comprehensive Study on Naphthenic Acid Corrosion ,” Paper 2555, presented at Corrosion/2002 , NACE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a shutdown, corrosion can be caused by pockets of water left in the process units and associated piping. Most petroleum refining and petrochemical plant operations involve flammable hydrocarbon streams, highly toxic or explosive gases, and strong acids or caustics that are often at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The characteristics include: conductivity of the solution, acidity and alkalinity, oxidizing power, degree of ionization, and solubility in the solution. These characteristics, in combination with the characteristics of the metal, will determine the corrosion behavior of a metal/environment combination. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... by a discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Examples of these applications are given as follows. Economic justification of anodic protection is based on the same factors as in any comparison of corrosion control methods. Anodic protection is an alternative for linings or higher alloys in the storage of sulfuric acid, for example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... and Rao V.V. , Anodic Protection of Mild Steel in Nitric Acid , Corrosion , Vol 39 , 1983 , p 55 9. Wilde B.E. and Hodge F.G. , The Cathodic Discharge of Hydrogen on Active and Passive Chromium Surfaces in Dilute Sulphuric Acid Solutions , Electrochim. Acta , Vol 14 , 1969 , p...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Orleans, LA ), National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1989 2. de Waard C. and Lotz U. , “ Prediction of CO 2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel, ” Paper 69, Corrosion/93 ( New Orleans, LA ), NACE International, 1993 3. de Waard C. and Milliams D.E. , Carbonic Acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... oxides that form on the surface of beryllium and their ability to withstand acids, bases, and corrosive agents found in rain and seawater. It explains how carbides, inclusions, ions, and impurities contribute to corrosion damage, particularly pitting, and how corrosion reduces the ductility and fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms, that can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... on the surface of the waterwall tube can provide a location for accumulation of corrosive boiler water contaminants and/or chemical additives and their reaction compounds ( Ref 2 ). The deposits may lead to low pH water chemistry in the local area, resulting in acidic corrosion attack ( Ref 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... and Samans C.H. , Chem. Eng. , Jan 27 , 1969 , p 178 4.137 Stephens C.D. and Scarberry R.C. , “ Relationship of Polythionic Acid Cracking Susceptibility to Sensitization in Inconel Alloy 800 and 801 ,” Paper 10, presented at Corrosion/69 , National Association of Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ( No. 10 ), 1965 , p 57 52. Hatch G.B. , Inhibiting (Oxygen) Corrosion with Zinc Salt-Methanol Phosphonic Acid Derivative Combinations , U.S. Patent 3,532,639 , 6 Oct 1970 53. Ralston P.H. , Amine Phosphonate Scale Inhibitor , U.S. Patent 3,393,150 , 16 July 1968...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... − radical. The decomposition of bicarbonate, carbonate alkalinities, and organic matter liberates carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which is highly corrosive in nature. For plants that contain copper alloys in the condensate or feedwater system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to hydrochloric acid (HCl) up to the atmospheric boiling point. However, the presence of small quantities of oxidizing metal ions, such as ferric ion (Fe 3+ ), will result in severe corrosion. Other operating conditions that require definition, especially for equipment used in the chemical-processing industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Thermodynamic concepts are referenced throughout this book to explain observed corrosion behavior. For example, copper will not corrode in a strong hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution if oxygen is not present; if oxygen is dissolved in the HCl, however, copper corrodes at a rapid rate. This behavior is readily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... unique and hostile environments are commonly found in actual production formations (i.e., downhole oil and gas reservoirs), which, in the absence of contamination, are devoid of oxygen. In situ corrosives normally include carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), polysulfides, organic acids...