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X-ray topography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the most effective tools for investigating boiler tube failures, including scanning electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... faintly in the Ti and Al maps although there is no Ti or Al in the plugs. This effect can be reduced by performing background subtraction in the analysis of the characteristic peaks used for the map. X-ray mapping will also show artifacts if the surface is not adequately smooth. Surface topography...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... with photons, x-rays, ions, neutrons, or electrons and analyzing the radiation emitted and/or reflected from the surface. Other techniques use other interactions, such as physical probing of the surface. Analyzing the chemistry and topography of failure surfaces is an important part of failure analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract Several specialized instruments are available for the metallographer to use as tools to gather key information on the characteristics of the microstructure being analyzed. These include microscopes that use electrons as a source of illumination instead of light and x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and large sample areas can be scanned. Under the right circumstances SEM can achieve 1 nm resolution which is very close to TEM and AFM. It is also relatively simple and inexpensive to add an energy dispersive x-ray detector (EDX) to a SEM which then provides a chemical micro-analysis capability (see...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast imaging, X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... nondestructive to maintain the integrity of the sample and verify that data collected can match that of the test fail data. When a component and area of interest are identified, additional non-destructive imaging techniques, such as X-Ray imaging and CSAM (Confocal Scanning Acoustic Microscopy) can be used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... layers. The layers were subjected to an energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The outermost two layers consisted essentially of nickel and phosphorus, whereas the inner layer consisted of nickel and iron. The outermost two layers contained cracks, and the inner layer did not. Also evident in the micrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.9781627084628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-specimen interactions occur. These interactions yield transmitted electrons, elastically and inelastically scattered electrons, secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons, Auger electrons and X-ray photons. Most of the transmitted and elastically scattered electrons and some of the inelastically...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., an x-ray tube, or a vacuum tube. In the rst of these, it is negative; in the other three, positive. In a battery or electrolytic cell, it is the electrode where oxidation occurs. Contrast with cathode. anode aperture. In electron microscopy, the opening in the accelerating voltage anode shield...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
..., friction forces, and stress and strain distributions. It explains how to measure temperature between tooling and workpiece surfaces as well as surface topography and composition, film thickness, and wear. It also discusses the benefits of reduced-scale and simulation testing and the transfer of results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...-rays X-rays are an alternate means of detecting disarray in a crystal lattice, because the lattice will diffract x-rays in much the same manner as an electron beam. Thus, directing an x-ray beam onto very thin films of crystalline materials in which the lattice arrangements are not perfect can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... (electron microscopy) 0.0051 (a) X-rays 0.01–15 Ultraviolet 15–400 Visible spectrum (blue to green to yellow to red) 400–700 Infrared 700–860 (a) Approximate, varies with accelerating potential. Source: From Phillips, Ref. 1. Light sources have been categorized as being...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... It is typically electrically insulating, which can be a problem or a feature. One advantage for FA is that these seals can be heated to decap them, and gaps are easy to see with SAM (Scanning Acoustic Microscopy) or X-ray. Metal-metal thermocompression bonding requires patterning metal on the two wafers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... Abstract This chapter presents several materials and processes related to soldering technology. It first provides information on lead-free solders, followed by sections devoted to flip-chip processes, diffusion soldering, and modeling. Scanning acoustic microscopy and fine-focus x-ray...