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X-ray powder diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength and a specimen consisting of thousands of tiny crystals. Since there are a large number of powder particles with many different orientations, the diffracted beam produces a cone of radiation. Different reflection cones are recorded on a film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the most effective tools for investigating boiler tube failures, including scanning electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... No. Characterization technique Key aspect for cold-sprayed coating 1 Optical microscopy Coating thickness, coating porosity, substrate-coating interface integrity, coating porosity after heat treatment 2 X-ray diffraction Feedstock powder phase evolution, as-sprayed and heat treated coating phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... on the surface of a specimen can be analyzed for the compounds present. As an example of the use of a diffractometer, the oxidation product on a heavily scaled steel part was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The oxide was scraped from the surface of the part, ground into a fine powder, and glued to a glass slide...
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 5.4 (a) X-ray diffractograms comparing IN625 (nickel-base superalloy) powders and cold-sprayed IN625 coating reveal broadening of the diffraction peaks in the coating, indicative of macroscopic strain. (b) Hall-Williamson plot taken from the peak broadening data to calculate the extent More
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 5.6 X-ray diffraction patterns comparing (a) warm-sprayed and (b) cold-sprayed titanium coating, along with the respective starting powders, indicate the presence of TiO oxides along with the metal in the warm-sprayed coating. Williamson-Hall plots for the (c) warm-sprayed and (d) cold More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... sensitivity of ~0.005% and a precision for quantitative analysis of ~0.2% relative, or 0.005% absolute, whichever is greater. For powders, the sample size is several grams pressed into a pellet. Powder samples are typically attached to substrates not produced by x-ray or are pressed into pellets. For bulk...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Amount by wt.% Oxygen 15.79 Aluminum 0.76 Silicon 0.75 Chromium 1.38 Iron 79.13 Nickel 0.19 For the purpose of phase identification, the scale sample was subjected to x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis using a powder x-ray diffractometer, and the results of analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy occurs, its physical and chemical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., for example, Cu k-alpha at 1.542 Å. Crystal diffraction follows Bragg’s law: n λ = 2 d  sine  θ where n is a constant (usually 1), λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, d is the interplanar spacing of the crystalline material, and sine θ is the experimental diffraction angle. A powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... successfully applied to detect flaws in metals, ceramics, composites, and microelectronic components. X-ray Diffraction X-ray diffraction is a common method for identifying phases in metallic materials, corrosion products, and surface deposits. Several cases of component failures due to locked...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... at the root. It may be a metal backing ring or strip; a pass of weld metal; or a nonmetal such as carbon, granular ux, or a protective gas. backing lm. A lm used as auxiliary support for the thin replica or specimen-supporting lm. back re ection. The diffraction of x-rays at a Bragg angle approaching 90...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is used mostly for determining the structure of single crystals. The Debye-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength and a specimen consisting of thousands of tiny crystals. Because there are a large number of powder particles with many different orientations, the diffracted beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... microscope). Limited to crystalline solids C.9 X-ray diffraction Scattering of x-rays transmitted through or reflected from a solid sample Quantitative crystalline phase analysis As C.8. Detection limit 1−5%. Accuracy between ±1 and ±10% of detected level. Sample may be in powder form so ideal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 36 X-ray diffraction analysis of the oxide scales formed on alloys 230, 617, and X was performed with the results summarized in Table 4.5 . The results showed that NiO and NiCr 2 O 4 along with Cr 2 O 3 oxides made up the external oxide scales for alloy 230, and NiO and Cr 2 O 3 made up...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2