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X-ray powder diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and the detection of lattice imperfections. The rotating single-crystal method uses a constant wavelength beam while the diffracting crystal is rotated. This method is used mostly for determining the structure of single crystals. The Debye-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... and their key attributes No. Characterization technique Key aspect for cold-sprayed coating 1 Optical microscopy Coating thickness, coating porosity, substrate-coating interface integrity, coating porosity after heat treatment 2 X-ray diffraction Feedstock powder phase evolution, as-sprayed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... is called the powder diffraction method. In a diffractometer, a monochromatic (single wavelength) beam of x-rays is focused on the surface of a powder sample pressed on a ground glass sample holder, and the diffracted beam is received by a detector that measures its intensity. The angle of incidence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... , Philips Electron Instruments, Inc. , 1984 Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis • Heinrich K.F.J. , Electron Beam X-Ray Microanalysis , Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1981 X-Ray Diffraction • Azaroff L.V. and Buerger M.J. , The Powder Method in X-Ray Crystallography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... A.1 Fig. A.20 Close-packed planes. Source: Ref A.1 Fig. A.1 Periodic table of the elements. Source: Ref A.1 Fig. A.26 Diffraction of x-rays by planes of atoms. Source: Ref A.4 as published in Ref A.1 Fig. A.27 Schematic of x-ray diffractometer. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... wavelengths by diffraction (similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing through a prism). An electronic counter is scanned over the angular range of the spectrometer, and a plot constructed of x-ray intensity versus wavelength (wavelength is calculated from the angle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... discusses three operation-related failures of boiler tubes. For the purpose of phase identification, the scale sample was subjected to x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis using a powder x-ray diffractometer, and the results of analysis are shown in Fig. 6.152 and Table 6.21 . The scale sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... (CT) Electric Current Perturbation Method (ECP) Acoustic Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Visual examination is an easy and widely used method for detecting surface flaws in a variety of components. Visual examination is carried out with the naked eye and with instruments such as borescopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...  sine  θ where n is a constant (usually 1), λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, d is the interplanar spacing of the crystalline material, and sine θ is the experimental diffraction angle. A powder camera or diffractometer is used when the diffraction angle can be varied and the resulting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...), and by sulfur above 1000 °C (1830 °F). It has been shown that after beryllium powder has been stored for several months under ambient conditions in a loosely covered container, the original beryllium carbide impurity phase can no longer be identified by x-ray diffraction. Atmospheric moisture slowly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... microscope). Limited to crystalline solids C.9 X-ray diffraction Scattering of x-rays transmitted through or reflected from a solid sample Quantitative crystalline phase analysis As C.8. Detection limit 1−5%. Accuracy between ±1 and ±10% of detected level. Sample may be in powder form so ideal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...: Ref 45 Phases detected from the x-ray diffraction analysis performed on the surfaces of test specimens after exposure to NH<sub>3</sub> at temperatures indicated for 168 h Table 4.19 Phases detected from the x-ray diffraction analysis performed on the surfaces of test specimens after...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... structure &lt;5 μm &gt;10 μm &lt;100 ppm Moderate Raman Chemical structure &gt;1 μm &gt;1 μm &lt;0.1 at.% Difficult Note: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., flaws, discontinuities, or scattering processes with the part. Several closely related techniques are used for different purposes. X-ray and sometimes neutron diffraction are used on induction heat treated parts for the determination of residual stresses, as discussed in Chapter 5, “Heat Treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... preparations. Very pure beryllides have been made, as confirmed by the presence of a single phase in an x-ray diffraction pattern. Chemical impurities include 0.7 to 1.5 wt% BeO, 500 to 800 ppm iron, 300 to 600 ppm silicon, and 300 to 800 ppm of aluminum. The thermal properties of the transitional element...