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X-ray inspection

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... optical inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) microscopy, and electrical verification. The article discusses various fault isolation techniques to tackle the wide array of failure signatures, namely IR lock-in thermography, magnetic current imaging, time domain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... create counterfeits. These include relabeling, refurbishing, and repackaging. The article presents a systematic inspection methodology that can be applied for detecting signs of possible part modifications. The methodology consists of external visual inspection, marking permanency tests, and X-ray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... terms of its advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. electromagnetic radiation gamma ray radiography neutron radiography radiation gaging real-time inspection X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of x-ray energy. These characteristics have made X-ray inspection systems a critical non-destructive imaging and analysis tool in the failure analysis laboratories. Most of the commercial X-ray equipment are projection type systems that place the sample in the X-ray beam emitted from micro...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... evaluation methods to flaw detection in P/M parts. The nondestructive evaluation methods covered are mechanical proof testing, metallography, liquid penetrant crack detection, filtered particle crack detection, magnetic particle crack inspection, direct current resistivity testing, x-ray radiography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... used to detect and evaluate flaws (irregularities or discontinuities) or defects in engineering systems. Of the many different NDT techniques used in industry, liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing account for about one-half of all NDT, ultrasonic inspection methods and x-ray methods account...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... ASM book Nondestructive Testing ( Ref 4 ), cites that liquid penetrant and magnetic particle inspection account for about 50% of all NDT testing, with ultrasonic and x-ray methods accounting for about another third. Eddy current accounts for approximately 10%. All other methods were about 2%. Table...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... dimension of the flaw should be parallel to the beam direction for maximum sensitivity. Some depth resolution can be obtained by tilting either the x-ray source or the part. Fig. 12.12 Typical nondestructive inspection (NDI) reference standards Several forms of radiography are normally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... elongated cavity with respect to the incident x-ray beam. The presence of top surface or root reinforcement affects the sensitivity of inspection, and the presence of foreign material, such as loose scale, flux, or weld spatter, may interfere with the interpretation of results. Ultrasonic inspection is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... control of the inspection technique, including the geometric relationships among the point of x-ray emission, the casting, and the x-ray imaging plane. The smallest detectable variation in metal thickness lies between 0.5 and 2.0% of the total section thickness. Narrow flaws, such as cracks, must lie in a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... either inherent flaws (such as fractures or cracks), or damage from use. Some common methods are visual, microscopy, liquid or dye penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current testing, x-ray or radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. This chapter provides an overview of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... availability of support services so the range of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... piece. In contrast to electromagnetic waves, such as light and x-rays, ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves consisting of oscillations, or vibrations, of the atomic or molecular particles of a substance about the equilibrium position of those particles. Ultrasonic waves can propagate in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... notable instance is the use of ultrasonics to determine the presence of thermal flakes or in locating quench cracks. Radiography (γ-ray or x-ray) is not extensively used for the inspection of forgings for two reasons. First, the types of discontinuities most commonly located by radiography (gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... six methods used in semiconductor industry are: Auger spectroscopy, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy, time of flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and transmission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... complexity, interconnect density and shrinking feature size, electrical testing and optical inspection are limited to guarantee a high FA success yield. Non-destructive testing methods are the best fit to adapt and ensure high quality root cause determination. Scanning acoustic microscopy and X-Ray imaging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Beryllium is an extraordinary metal with an unusual combination of physical and mechanical properties. It has low density, high stiffness, and excellent dimensional stability. It is also transparent to x-rays and can be machined to extremely close tolerances. This chapter discusses the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... SAM is one of three complementary techniques used in the nondestructive inspection of packaged ICs. X-ray radiography and a transmission acoustic technique called scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) and are also used for this application ( Fig. 44) . These two techniques can each produce images...