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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract X-ray imaging systems have long played a critical role in failure analysis laboratories. This article begins by listing several favorable traits that make X-rays uniquely well suited for non-destructive evaluation and testing. It then provides information on X-ray equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... instrument in the metallographer’s arsenal is the EPMA, an instrument often called simply, the “microprobe.” The microprobe is essentially a SEM equipped with extra x-ray detectors to maximize the compositional information generated from the x-rays created during the interaction of the primary electron beam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... by comparing the x-ray intensities from the unknown sample with their counterparts from a series of standard, similar, and known compositions. All modern instruments are equipped with computers to facilitate this calibration and measurement process. The use of progressively more powerful computer hardware...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and testing. These characteristics have made X-ray inspection systems a critical non-destructive imaging and analysis tool in the failure analysis laboratories. Most of the commercial X-ray equipment are projection based systems that place the sample in the X-ray beam path, emitted from micro-focus or nano...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... are unique because it has a low atomic mass, a low x-ray absorption cross section, and a high neutron scattering cross section. With its low mass x-ray absorption coefficient, one of the earliest uses of beryllium was for radiation windows in diagnostic x-ray equipment. As early as 1951, beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... be used effectively. Values of 6 to 20 are common; magnification values as high as 100 can be used. Focal spots in microfocal x-ray equipment range from 5 to 20 μm (0.0002 to 0.0008 in.). In addition to increased image size, magnification systems also offer improved contrast because radiation scattered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... Perhaps the most common materials analysis technology is energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX). The EDAX equipment is commonly bundled with SEM equipment ( Fig. 11.6 ). It can also be purchased as an aftermarket accessory to existing SEM systems. Spectrometry Chromatography Several tools...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of inspection that can be carried out. In service on operating plant, there are restrictions for safety reasons, space constraints, and availability of support services so the range of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., solvent for marking permanency tests, part datasheet information X-ray inspection Severity: non-destructive, may induce handling related damage such as ESD if precautions are not taken. Instances of part damage due to X-ray radiation exposure are also reported. Tools/Equipment: X-ray machine, X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Specialized equipment required B.7 Radiography Penetration of sample/structure (and subsequent photographic recording) by x-rays or γ-rays. Extent of penetration depends on thickness and on material and its contained cracks and defects. Volumetric incidence/extent/ location/orientation of cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis of scale sample Table 6.19 X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis of scale sample Element/Compound Amount by wt.% SiO 2 0.68 SO 3 0.25 CaO 0.011 MnO 0.43 Na 2 O 0.74 P 2 O 5 0.25 Cr 2 O 3 2.62 NiO 1.74...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... migration, blown core, dimpled core, node bond failures, and the presence of water in the cells. As depicted in Fig. 12.11 , the part is exposed to x-ray radiation that penetrates the part and produces an image on the film located under the part. Images produced on the film are a result of differential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... variations in material thickness, resulting in localized dark or light spots on the image. Sensitivity or the ability to detect flaws, of radiographic inspection, depends on close control of the inspection technique, including the geometric relationships among the point of x-ray emission, the casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... from molded part 95.0 3.2 … … 1.6 Comparison summary of scanning electron beam instruments equipped with secondary electron and x-ray detectors Table 2 Comparison summary of scanning electron beam instruments equipped with secondary electron and x-ray detectors Instrument Features...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... Gamma rays have greater penetrating power than do x-rays and hence can be used for thicker sections. They are obtained by the radioactive decay of isotopes such as cobalt 60, cesium 137, thulium 170, or iridium 192. Gamma ray equipment is very useful for fieldwork. In neutron radiography, thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... microprobes. These SEMs are optimized to work in conditions that generate high x-ray intensity for WDS under stable conditions. This was the first equipment able to perform reliable quantitative microanalysis. The second method consists of separating the energies of the x-ray signals that reach the detector...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... of beryllium makes it practically transparent to x-rays and other high-energy electromagnetic radiation. It is therefore used as a window material in x-ray tubes and detectors such as those used in energy-dispersive analysis of x-ray equipment. Powder metallurgy is required for a number of reasons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Computed tomography is a version of x-ray radiography that includes highly sophisticated analysis of the detected radiation. A tomographic setup consists of a high energy photon source, a rotation table for the specimen, a detector array, and the associated data analysis and display equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... optical inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) microscopy, and electrical verification. The article discusses various fault isolation techniques to tackle the wide array of failure signatures, namely IR lock-in thermography, magnetic current imaging, time domain...