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X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... over 12 keV in energy. X-ray maps using a very high count rate SDD detector are shown near the end of this article. A much more expensive, complex and challenging detection scheme is the wavelength dispersive x-ray detector (WDS). X-rays are diffracted by bent crystals into a detector so that a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... six methods used in semiconductor industry are: Auger spectroscopy, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy, time of flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and transmission...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... dispersive or energy dispersive analysis. In wavelength dispersive instruments, shown in Fig. 4 , the emitted x-ray beam is directed onto one of several crystals that separates it into its component wavelengths by diffraction (similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing through a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... alloys, several techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... the different phases in steel was by Edgar C. Bain ( FIG. 5.5 ). Using x-ray diffraction on samples heated to the high temperature phase (austenite), he found they were face-centered-cubic (fcc). Ferrite and martensite at room temperature were body-centered-cubic (bcc). This explained the higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... changed industrial practice but because it combined the latest research tool (x-ray diffraction) with the latest theory of hardening (slip interference by precipitated particles). Bain performed the x-ray work and Jeffries supplied the slip interference concept. This paper showed, as concluded earlier...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... material—until a few years later, when x-ray diffraction uncovered that no matter how far grains are distorted, they still retain their crystalline structure. As late as 1924, Jeffries could find no solution to grain boundaries other than the amorphous cement theory. A second consulting assignment that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... In addition, the latent heat of fusion is only approximately 3 to 4% of the corresponding latent heat of vaporization. The small amount of volume change and the relatively small latent heats of fusion are evidence that the atomic bonding in liquids and solids is very similar. X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of beam-specimen interactions occur. These interactions yield transmitted electrons, elastically and inelastically scattered electrons, secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons, Auger electrons and X-ray photons. Most of the transmitted and elastically scattered electrons and some of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... article or the orientation differences of grains or subgrains may be checked by x-ray diffraction. Fig. 5.3 (a) Automated dipping of investment casting molds, (b) cutaway view of shell mold for an air-cooled gas turbine blade The production of PC castings involves all of the steps noted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... tetragonal (bct). Fig. 4.11 Comparison of the crystal structures of ferrite and martensite The a and c lengths of the unit cell of martensite can be measured using x-ray diffraction techniques. As shown in Fig. 4.12 , it is found that as the %C dissolved in the martensite increases, the c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... a low-energy coherent interface during the nucleation process. Often, the precipitation sequence begins with the nucleation of small, fully coherent phases known as Guinier and Preston zones (discovered independently by Guinier and Preston from x-ray diffraction studies). Guinier-Preston zones...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... carbide, cementite (Fe 3 C). (As explained in Chapter 10, “Tempering,” in alloy steels, the cementite carbide is shown as M 3 C, where M means Fe + X , with X referring to the added alloying element. In an Fe-Cr-C alloy, the X would be chromium.) The first two pure chromium carbides have been...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and prior processing. For many alloys, stress-relief cycles can be developed by empirical studies of stress decay with time and temperature, as determined by nondestructive means such as x-ray diffraction. This is not an effective technique for superalloys, where extensive material testing of critical...