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X-ray computed tomography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... detection in P/M parts Method Measured/detected Applicability to PM parts (a) Advantages Disadvantages Green Sintered X-ray radiography Density variations, cracks, inclusions C C Can be automated Relatively high initial cost; radiation hazard Computed tomography Density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... S. , Lorut F. , Mourier T. , Bleuet P. , High resolution X-ray computed tomography: what synchrotron sources can bring to 3Di devices failure analysis , 42nd International Symposium on Testing and Failure Analysis 2016 , Fort Worth, Texas, US X-ray imaging efficiently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... gaging . X-ray film is used more extensively than all other recording media combined. X-Ray Film Radiographic Paper Xeroradiography Fluorescent Screens Image Intensifier Tubes Digital Radiography Image Processing Radiation Gaging Computed Tomography (CT) Three general...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... variations in material thickness, resulting in localized dark or light spots on the image. Sensitivity or the ability to detect flaws, of radiographic inspection, depends on close control of the inspection technique, including the geometric relationships among the point of x-ray emission, the casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... We Need Improved Wire-Bonding Methods ?”, proc. of 34th ISTFA, Nov . 2008 [11] Jacob P. , Jerjen I. , Nicoletti G. , “ Root-cause investigations of stitch bond - shearing by means of 3D-X-ray computer tomography (XCT), metallographic polishing and FIB ”. Proc. ISTFA 2010...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... positive peak profile (with a lower amplitude shoulder peak) indicating the defect is in the solder bump region. Figure 4 shows the 3D X-Ray tomography performed at the solder bump location and a missing solder bump was observed to be the root cause of the open fail. EOTPR is very useful in determining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in X-ray technology allow better understanding of the internal construction of these Ta-CAPS. One such example is X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) which allows simultaneous virtual sectioning of a component from different directions. Fig. 4 , for example, shows virtual sections of a polymer herm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels , ASM International , 1999 1.2 Vander Voort G. F. , Metallography: Principles and Practice , ASM International , 1984 . 1.3 Goldstein J. , Newbury D. E. , Joy D. C. , and Lyman C. E. , Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Magnetic Particle Testing Eddy Current Inspection Radiography Using x-rays, γ-rays, and Neutrons Ultrasonic Inspection In addition to these conventional NDE techniques, there are certain other techniques that are employed under special circumstances. Acoustic Emission Computed Tomography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...-dense organic materials such as ordinary plastics. In yet another machine, which is a computerized tomography scanner, x-ray scans are taken around an object and the different views combined on a computer to produce a slice image in a second. Screening a bag takes 9 to 12 slices. For bags arousing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... materials for either inherent flaws (such as fractures or cracks), or damage from use. Some common methods are visual, microscopy, liquid or dye penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current testing, x-ray or radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. This chapter provides an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the transmission process, a variety of beam-specimen interactions occur. These interactions yield transmitted electrons, elastically and inelastically scattered electrons, secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons, Auger electrons and X-ray photons. Most of the transmitted and elastically scattered electrons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... , 51] . X-ray microscopy (XRM) is a tomographic technique using an architecture combining geometric magnification with optical magnification to achieve high-resolution 3D tomography on intact samples as large as a 300 mm wafer. With the latest systems having 0.5 µm spatial resolution under optimal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... The data were quantified using the expression due to Avrami [26] and Johnson and Mehl [27] : V k = 1 - e ⁢ x ⁢ p ⁢ [ - b k ⁢ ( T ) · t n ⁢ k ⁡ ( T ) ] where V k is the volume fraction of phase k after holding for t seconds at a constant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... , Vol 48 ( No. 11 ), 1987 , p 1101 – 1113 10.1016/0022-3697(87)90120-X 1.96 Lin I.-H. and Thomson R.M. , J. Mater. Res. , Vol 1 ( No. 1 ), 1986 10.1557/JMR.1986.0073 1.97 Dienes G.J. , Sieradzki K. , Paskin A. , and Massoumzadeh B. , Surf. Sci...