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X-ray computed tomography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., and be combined to a 3D image. This is called computer tomography (CT). Fig. 1 X-ray system based on geometrical magnification. Compared with imaging techniques based on electron and visible light, X-rays offer several favorable traits that makes them uniquely well suited for non-destructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...-time radiography, and x-ray computed tomography Table 5 Comparison of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and x-ray computed tomography Performance characteristic Film radiography Real-time radiography (a) Computed tomography or digital radiography (b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Applicability to PM parts (a) Advantages Disadvantages Green Sintered X-ray radiography Density variations, cracks, inclusions C C Can be automated Relatively high initial cost; radiation hazard Computed tomography Density variations, cracks, inclusions C C Can be automated; pinpoint...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... if the localized indication is a spurious indication, a film artifact, a video aberration, or a surface irregularity. Computed Tomography Computed tomography, also known as computerized axial tomography (or CAT scanning), is a more sophisticated x-ray imaging technique originally developed for medical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., corrosion, machining, welding, fluid flow, and so forth. It is a condition-monitoring technique and is very useful in predicting failures. Computed Tomography (CT) In this technique, a thin beam of radiation, generally x-rays, is made to pass through the component and the image of a thin cross...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in comparison to the bare substrate shows a similar positive peak profile (with a lower amplitude shoulder peak) indicating the defect is in the solder bump region. Figure 4 shows the 3D X-Ray tomography performed at the solder bump location and a missing solder bump was observed to be the root cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... In yet another machine, which is a computerized tomography scanner, x-ray scans are taken around an object and the different views combined on a computer to produce a slice image in a second. Screening a bag takes 9 to 12 slices. For bags arousing suspicion, the machine projects two images taken from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... electrons of the various atoms to be ejected with the release of X-ray energies and wavelengths characteristic of the atoms ( Ref 1.4 ). In the scanning electron microscope the characteristic energy spectra are typically measured by solid state detectors in the process referred to as Energy Dispersive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... understanding of the internal construction of these Ta-CAPS. One such example is X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) which allows simultaneous virtual sectioning of a component from different directions. Fig. 4 , for example, shows virtual sections of a polymer herm sealed Ta-CAP from different directions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... for either inherent flaws (such as fractures or cracks), or damage from use. Some common methods are visual, microscopy, liquid or dye penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current testing, x-ray or radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. This chapter provides an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-specimen interactions occur. These interactions yield transmitted electrons, elastically and inelastically scattered electrons, secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons, Auger electrons and X-ray photons. Most of the transmitted and elastically scattered electrons and some of the inelastically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... high resolution C-scan equipment. Prior to acoustic inspection, die attach inspection was performed primarily with x-ray radiography. Experience soon showed that reflected sound indicates the true percent of the total area of a die attach interface that is bonded while x-ray inspection reveals only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... We Need Improved Wire-Bonding Methods ?”, proc. of 34th ISTFA, Nov . 2008 [11] Jacob P. , Jerjen I. , Nicoletti G. , “ Root-cause investigations of stitch bond - shearing by means of 3D-X-ray computer tomography (XCT), metallographic polishing and FIB ”. Proc. ISTFA 2010...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... that e = 0.60, but that the emissivity setting on the pyrometer is 0.90. Thus, Δe = 50%, and ΔT = (50)(1 X 10 –6 )(1273)/(0.0144) = 4.42% = 56 K = 56 °C. The pyrometer would thus indicate a value which is low by 56 °C. It is obvious that low settings of emissivity produce temperature readouts which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mbheaktmse.t56030021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-418-5
... manufacturing ( Ref 28 ). Question 14: What Are the Basic Characterization Methods Used for High-Entropy Alloys? Answer For crystal-structure detection, x-ray diffraction (XRD), in-situ neutron diffraction (ND), and synchrotron XRD are the normal methods used. For microstructure analysis, scanning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mbheaktmse.9781627084185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-418-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.9781627082655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2