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Wrought iron

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Abstract Abstract This appendix is a collection of tables listing the chemical compositions of wrought ferritic steels; wrought stainless steels; cast corrosion- and heat-resistant alloys; wrought iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base alloys; cast nickel- and cobalt-base alloys; oxide-dispersion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides an account of the pre-Columbian history of metal discovery in America and then reviews the development of metallurgy in the Middle Ages from early wrought iron practices to the use of coke in iron casting. It discusses the influence of the family...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and their alloys Near East 2400–2200 B.C. Copper statue of Pharaoh Pepi I Egypt 2000 B.C. Bronze Age Far East 1500 B.C. Iron Age (wrought iron) Near East 700–600 B.C. Etruscan dust granulation Italy 600 B.C. Cast iron China 224 B.C. Colossus of Rhodes destroyed Greece 200–300 A.D...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides basic materials selection information for iron-nickel-, nickel-, and cobalt-base superalloys. It discusses mechanical and physical properties, the effect of service temperature, and the comparative strengths of wrought and cast product forms. It includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... basis. Iron ore was mined from the local hillside and delivered to the blast furnace by wagon or even in pouches on horseback. Output from the furnace as cast iron, or from the forge as wrought iron, had to be delivered to the outside world in the same manner. Yearly production of these iron plantations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of converting pig iron to wrought iron ( FIG. 3.1 ). FIG. 3.1 William Kelly, American inventor of the “air-boiling process” for making steel from cast iron. Experimental Work Begins on “Air Blowing” to Make Steel Bessemer Process Enters Production Bessemer Steel Becomes an Industry Andrew...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... characteristics of gear steels and the bending fatigue strength and properties of carburized steels are reviewed. In addition to wrought steels, the chapter provides information on the other iron-base alloys that are used for gears, namely cast carbon and alloy steels, gray and ductile cast irons, powder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the purity of the starting materials. The iron that is present is controlled by additions of MnCl 2 to the melt during casting. Although magnesium alloys are produced in both wrought and cast product forms, cast alloys are much more widely used. Some of the wrought alloys are strengthened by cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... densities of entrapped slag inclusions. The inclusions were then fragmented, dispersed, and removed by heavy hammering or forging to produce wrought iron. In an early process in India, about 350 B.C ., carbon was added to wrought iron to produce wootz steel by carburizing in crucibles with charcoal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... compositions of wrought superalloys Table 2 Nominal compositions of wrought superalloys Alloy UNS No. Composition, % Cr Ni Co Mo W Nb Ti Al Fe C Other Solid-solution alloys Iron-nickel-base Alloy N-155 (Multimet) R30155 21.0 20.0 20.0 3.00 2.5 1.0 … … 32.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Superalloys are nickel, iron-nickel, and cobalt-base alloys designed for high-temperature applications, generally above 540 deg C. This chapter covers the metallurgy, composition, and properties of cast and wrought superalloys. It provides information on melting, heat treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...., by stabilizing grain boundaries against excessive shear). Carbides are found in all three superalloy groups. The δ and η phases are useful (along with γ′) in control of structure of wrought iron-nickel- and nickel-base superalloys during processing. The extent to which they contribute directly to strengthening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Precipitation of η phase (needlelike) in A-286 wrought iron-nickel-base superalloy after 816 °C (1500 °F) for 546 h. 15 mL HCl, 10 mL HNO 3 , and 10 mL acetic acid. 1000× Fig. B.10 Cast IN-100 nickel-base superalloy microstructure after exposure at 760 °C (1400 °F) for 5000 h, showing Widmanstätten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... called wrought iron. Later, the process was improved when decarburization of cast iron was developed. Probably the most remarkable was the invention of Henry Cort in the 18th century ( Ref 5 ), although it apparently had existed in 1st-century China. In reverberatory furnaces (in which the metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Table 1 Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Corroded end (anodic, or least noble) Magnesium Magnesium alloys Zinc Galvanized steel or galvanized wrought iron Aluminum alloys 5052, 3004, 3003, 1100, 6053...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... or low-alloy nickel 11 6.3 Low-alloy special purpose tool steel 7.1–16 3.9–8.7 Pure Dysprosium (Dy) 9.3–13 5.2–7.2 Nickel molybdenum alloy steel 11–12 6.1–6.6 Pure Palladium (Pd) 11 6.3 Pure Thorium (Th) 11 6.4 Wrought iron 10–13 5.7–7.0 Oil-hardening cold work tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... and silver, and with copper and many other metals. Most mineral sources available contained combinations of metals so that alloys were the natural output of many of these ancient metalworking activities. The carbon in cast iron and steel automatically makes them alloys. Wrought iron is the only nonalloyed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.9781627082846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... (a) to (d) 0.2% C (0.24C-0.05Si-0.3Mn, wt%). Transverse sections of weld region of a longitudinal weld in a forge welded pipe, (a) 3% nital. 10×. (b) Picral. 250×. (c) Picral. 100×. (d) 1% nital. 750×. (e) Transverse section of a forge weld between a puddled wrought iron (0.06C-0. 13Si-0.03Mn, wt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., cobalt-base wrought alloy: Co Cast, cobalt-base casting alloy: Fe Wrt, iron-base wrought alloy; Fe Cast, iron-base casting alloy. (b) In the tables on speeds and feeds, the mechanically alloyed products are sometimes listed separately. Otherwise the grouping and hardness of the mechanically alloyed...