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White liquor

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 19 Corrosion rates in white liquors plus chlorides. Source: Ref 8 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... as BLRBs) are used to efficiently convert wood chips into paper in pulp and paper mills. The wood chips are first cooked in an aqueous solution (known as white liquor) in a digester for manufacturing pulp. The digested pulp is then separated from the residual liquor, which is relatively dilute in nature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Introduction The black liquor recovery boiler is an integral part of the kraft pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In the kraft process, wood chips are cooked in an aqueous solution, known as “white liquor,” containing primarily sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) under...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... green and white kraft liquors have been protected ( Ref 16 – 19 ). Early in the development of anodic protection, there were attempts to apply it to a wide range of different metal-chemical systems. The pace of those development programs has slackened a bit, particularly in the United States...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... outperform the higher nickel 304L and 316L, with performance improving with increasing chromium content. The advantage is magnified when the environment is contaminated with chlorides, as is the case of the white liquors of kraft digesters. Fig. 18 Corrosion rates in boiling NaOH. Source: Ref 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... At higher solution temperatures, sensitized type 304 and type 316 are particularly susceptible to SCC, whether caused by chlorides, sulfur compounds, or caustic. For example, type 304 or 316 kraft black liquor evaporators and white liquor tubing are subject to SCC in sensitized HAZs. In many cases cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cracking (SCC), whether caused by chlorides, sulfur compounds, or caustic. For example, type 304 or 316 kraft black liquor evaporators and white liquor tubing are subject to SCC in sensitized HAZs. In many cases cracking occurs after HCl acid cleaning. Although the initial crack path may be intergranular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., but is so placed in the electrolyte, between the anode and cathode, that the part nearer the anode becomes cathodic and the part nearer the cathode becomes anodic. Also called intermediate electrode. bituminous coating. Coal tar or asphalt-base coating. black liquor. The liquid material remaining from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... this powder at higher temperature in air results in a weight gain such that the original powder must have been a mixture of metal and oxide. A mixture of oxide and nitride would be white. As a deoxidizing agent, beryllium readily reduces borates, silicates, and phosphates at red heat to form beryllium oxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the classifications of cast iron: white, malleable, gray, ductile, and compacted graphite. Based on corrosion resistance, cast irons can be grouped into five basic categories. Each is discussed below. Cast iron classification based on carbon form and shape Table 3 Cast iron classification based on carbon form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-cristobalite crystallized. At the highest holding temperatures of 1120 to 1200 °C with 2 h soak time, BeO·Al 2 O 3 and BeSiO 4 were formed through the reaction of beryllia with mullite. Purification of the beryl frit acidification leach liquor employed the historical alum and chelation steps...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... acid, not refreshed 5–60 35 (95) 0.002–0.007 5–60 60 (140) 0.01–0.02 30–50 100 (212) 0.10–0.18 5–20 100 (212) 0.02 30–60 190 (374) 1.5–2.8 70 270 (518) 1.2 20 290 (554) 0.4 70 290 (554) 1.1 Nitric acid, white fuming Liquid or vapor Room Nil ... 82 (180...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... arsenal of ingredients is available for powder forming. The situation is similar to a bakery, where eggs, flour, sugar, vegetable oil, butter, vanilla, and baking soda are common materials. For a baker, the ratio of these ingredients differs if the target is white cake versus sugar cookies. The same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.../bicarbonate solutions are responsible for near-neutral transgranular SCC (TGSCC). This form of SCC exhibits transgranular, quasi-cleavage, wide cracks with little branching, and appreciable corrosion product accumulation within the crack walls ( Ref 18.35 – 18.37 ). Large amounts of white iron carbonate (FeCO...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.9781627082860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0