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White liquor

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... known as BLRBs) are used to efficiently convert wood chips into paper in pulp and paper mills. The wood chips are first cooked in an aqueous solution (known as white liquor) in a digester for manufacturing pulp. The digested pulp is then separated from the residual liquor, which is relatively dilute...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and paper industry. In the kraft process, wood chips are cooked in an aqueous solution, known as “white liquor,” containing primarily sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) under pressure in a digester for manufacturing pulp. After cooking, the pulp is separated from residual liquor for paper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... in HCl compared to 316L. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 18 Corrosion rates in boiling NaOH. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 19 Corrosion rates in white liquors plus chlorides. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 20 Minimum temperatures for wet phosphoric acid (WPA) with an isocorrosion rate of 0.127 mm/yr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... At higher solution temperatures, sensitized type 304 and type 316 are particularly susceptible to SCC, whether caused by chlorides, sulfur compounds, or caustic. For example, type 304 or 316 kraft black liquor evaporators and white liquor tubing are subject to SCC in sensitized HAZs. In many cases cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cracking (SCC), whether caused by chlorides, sulfur compounds, or caustic. For example, type 304 or 316 kraft black liquor evaporators and white liquor tubing are subject to SCC in sensitized HAZs. In many cases cracking occurs after HCl acid cleaning. Although the initial crack path may be intergranular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... tanks holding green and white kraft liquors have been protected ( Ref 16 – 19 ). Early in the development of anodic protection, there were attempts to apply it to a wide range of different metal-chemical systems. The pace of those development programs has slackened a bit, particularly in the United...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of metal and oxide. A mixture of oxide and nitride would be white. As a deoxidizing agent, beryllium readily reduces borates, silicates, and phosphates at red heat to form beryllium oxide [Illig 1932]. The direct action of ammonia or nitrogen on beryllium metal at 1100 °C (2010 °F) yields beryllium nitride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the classifications of cast iron: white, malleable, gray, ductile, and compacted graphite. Based on corrosion resistance, cast irons can be grouped into five basic categories. Each is discussed below. Cast iron classification based on carbon form and shape Table 3 Cast iron classification based on carbon form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... . “ Beryllium Electrorefining ,” Report RFP-4188, Rockwell International Corp., Rocky Flats Plant , Golden, CO 10.2172/6155027 Moore R.E. , Barton C.J. , Grimes W.R. , Meadows R.E. , Bratcher LM. , White G.O. , McVay T.N. , and Harris L.A. , 1959 . Phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... acid, not refreshed 5–60 35 (95) 0.002–0.007 5–60 60 (140) 0.01–0.02 30–50 100 (212) 0.10–0.18 5–20 100 (212) 0.02 30–60 190 (374) 1.5–2.8 70 270 (518) 1.2 20 290 (554) 0.4 70 290 (554) 1.1 Nitric acid, white fuming Liquid or vapor Room Nil ... 82 (180...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... and Compacting Performance of Spray Dried Molybdenum Powders , Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. , Vol 20 , 2002 , p 175 – 180 10.1016/S0263-4368(01)00062-2 3. Dhara S. and Bhargave P. , Egg White as an Environmentally Friendly Low-Cost Binder for Gelcasting Ceramics , J. Am. Ceram. Soc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... corrosion product accumulation within the crack walls ( Ref 18.35 – 18.37 ). Large amounts of white iron carbonate (FeCO 3 ) have been found near cracking zones on pipeline surfaces ( Ref 18.38 , 18.39 ). The TGSCC mechanisms are believed to be anodic dissolution, hydrogen embrittlement, and the combined...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.9781627082860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0