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Weld defects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., mm/min (in./min) 305–4,460 (12–175) … … Weld passes 4 6 15 (a) Difficult to avoid lack of fusion defects Typical weld parameters for plasma arc welds Table 12.5 Typical weld parameters for plasma arc welds Parameter (a) Thickness 3.2 mm (⅛ in.) 4.8 mm ( 3 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Microstructural defects in weld, (a) 200×, (b) 100×, (c) 200×. (d) Microstructure of the weld, 100×. (e) Microstructure of outer surface near weld, 200×. (f) Puncture contours showing corrosion damage, 200× Fig. 6.165 Low-magnification views of inner and outer surface at puncture location indicating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... defects, and the need for contaminant-free surfaces and atmospheres. It describes common forms of fusion, arc, and solid-state welding along with the use of filler metals, shielding gases, and stress-relief treatments. It also discusses the practice of titanium brazing and the role of filler metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... welding techniques, defect prevention, fixturing, heat treatments, and general practices, including the use of filler metals. It also discusses several solid-state welding methods, superplastic forming, and transient liquid phase bonding, a type of diffusion welding process. The chapter includes extensive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract Failure analysis of steel welds may be divided into three categories. They include failures due to design deficiencies, weld-related defects usually found during inspection, and failures in field service. This chapter emphasizes the failures due to various discontinuities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Defects in Extrusion 4.11 Toughness, Fracture 4.11.3 Fracture during Hot-Working 4.11.1 Ductile Fracture 4.11.2 Brittle Fracture and Mixed Types 4.12 Solid-State Bonding 4.12.1 Bonding Processes 4.12.2 The Formation of Pressure Welds in Hollow Sections and during Billet-on-Billet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... a combination of circumstances. The absence of any one of the factors would prevent this type of fracture from occurring. The factors that must all be present simultaneously in order to cause brittle fracture in a normally ductile steel are: Stress concentration . This may be a weld defect, a fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to various defects Material defects due to selection of wrong material Forming and welding defects Design defects Failures related to cleaning and maintenance Each one of these failure mechanisms is discussed in the following sections of this chapter along with relevant case studies. ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... a defect in the base metal. The defect existed prior to reconstruction. The metal did not have adequate toughness to arrest the propagation of the crack. The region around the defect had been embrittled by heating due to cutting and welding. The steel did not meet the API 650 Standard of the American...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...-state transformation steel stress concentration weld defects welded joints FUSION WELDING is the joining of two or more pieces of material by melting a portion of each and allowing the liquefied portions to solidify together. One distinguishing feature of all fusion welding processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... to a possible welding defect and improperly heat treated material resulting in subsequent fatigue crack growth Selection and development of materials with improved toughness at the service temperature of –160 °C (–250 °F) Comet aircraft failures 1950s Fatigue crack initiation in pressurized skins due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., and other restrained structures frequently joined with welded construction. The factors that must be present simultaneously to cause brittle fracture in a normally ductile steel are: A stress concentration must be present. This may be a weld defect, a fatigue crack, a stress-corrosion crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metallurgical transformations occur across the weld metal and HAZ, and these microstructures can significantly alter the intrinsic corrosion rate of the steel. Fusion welding produces a weld metal that, due to the high cooling rate, is effectively a chill casting containing a high density of lattice defects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Clusters or bands (inclusions, precipitates) Weld defects Surface oxidation and carburization Brittle surface coatings Forging/extrusion “cracking” and geometry discontinuities Hydrogen attack Local “soft spots” (precipitate-free zones) Tool marks and dents Creep voiding/cracking Local “hard...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... during testing, and most started at welding defects but propagated through sound metal. One of the longest cracks was 975 m (3200 ft) long. Once started, such cracks run at speeds greater than the velocity of sound in the pressurized gas. Therefore, there is no release of the gas pressure to reduce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of the prosthesis and failure analysis, it was found that a crack had nucleated on a microweld on the surface of the implant and propagated by fatigue. It was found that the prosthesis had been made by an ordinary casting process and the surface porosity was covered by repair welding. Defective repair welding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... solders appears best for soldering beryllium. A reaction-type flux, which is suitable for aluminum, is recommended. The flux residue should be removed in a safe manner to avoid any health hazards [ ASM 1993 , American Welding Society 1998 ]. Minor defects or discontinuities in a brazed joint can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., pressure vessels, tanks, pipes, bridges, and other restrained structures. Four factors must be present simultaneously to cause the brittle failure of a normally ductile steel: The steel itself must be susceptible to brittle fracture. Stress concentrations must be present—such as a weld defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... is finished, the surface should be cleaned carefully again with a piece of clean cloth or cotton ball. At this point of the preparation, some important features can be observed: porosity, bubbles, pipe, large nonmetallic inclusions, and some weld defects are already evident without etching. Another...