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Water pipelines

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., such as a buried metal pipe, some other metal structure, or an electrolyte with low resistance such as salt water. The current then flows to and from that structure and causes accelerated corrosion whenever it leaves a metallic structure and flows into an electrolyte. For example, in a pipeline...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... phase, typically tend to be less corrosive than corresponding natural gas transmission systems that carry water vapor in the gas phase. Under normal operating conditions, gas transmission pipelines carry undersaturated gas processed by upstream dehydrating units. These pipelines are generally operated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... inhibitors oil and gas production oil wells gas wells water injection systems oil and gas pipelines bacteria-induced corrosion CORROSION INHIBITORS historically used in the oil field can be grouped into several common types or mechanistic classes: passivating, vapor phase, cathodic, anodic, film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as other corrosion cells can be autocatalytic in that the chemical and electrochemical reactions, as well as ion migration, tend to produce conditions that promote the continuation of the cells. At the anode, the metal ions produced by the corrosion reactions hydrolyze (react with water), reducing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test • D 610, Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces • D 665, Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water • D 849, Test Method for Copper Corrosion of Industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... such as condenser water boxes, internal parts of pumps, certain pipeline interiors. Lead alloy anodes, containing 2% silver, or 1% silver and 5% antimony, are used for cathodic protection systems in seawater. Lead alloy anodes should not be buried in the sea bottom or used in freshwater applications. Oxide...
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
of electrochemical data from a partially dehydrated CO 2 gas pipeline liquid phase water/glycol and condensing vapor phase in system. Corrosion rates are given in mils per year (mpy). Source: Ref 100 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... completely during filling of compressed natural gas from a gas well after six months of service. The steel was A-372 class 5, quenched and tempered to a tensile strength of 1100 to 1170 MPa (160 to 170 ksi). The cause of the rupture was environmentally assisted cracking due to water and hydrogen sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... that as little as 0.01 ppm oxygen can lead to SCC ( Ref 18.21 , 18.45 ). In contrast, the addition of about 0.2% water and the elimination of air contamination can help decrease the SCC susceptibility ( Ref 18.42 , 18.46 ). Case Study 5: SCC of a Natural Gas Pipeline A 0.76 m (30 in.) OD API 5L Grade X...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... on ships, coastal power plants, and similar structures. Fig. 12 Zinc anodes on the underside of a fishing boat The weight of zinc is an advantage for marine pipelines. Bracelet anodes ( Fig. 13 ) are attached at pipe joints to provide ballast and to prevent corrosion in the water-mud...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... steel pipelines. 2.3.10 Other Environments Stress-corrosion cracking has been a problem in low-alloy steels used in nuclear power water reactors ( Ref 2.136 – 2.138 ). The environment of interest in this case is high-purity water with a very low oxygen content. Although susceptibility appears...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... systems; oil and gas handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), from produced sulfides Underground pipeline industry Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 34.5 and 138 MPa (5000 and 20,000 psi). Additionally, oil and gas production from reservoirs under deep ocean waters must enter submarine production pipelines and related equipment. The production environment is quickly cooled from the high temperatures mentioned previously to near freezing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., which can revert back to hydrated iron oxides (rust) in the presence of oxygen and water ( Fig. 15.1 ). In this example, the metal returns to its more chemically stable state from the reactions it has with the surrounding environment. Fig. 15.1 The corrosion cycle of steel Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... salts, when corrosion can be appreciable. In natural surface waters and nonsaline atmospheres, the galvanic corrosion of aluminum is rarely significant, although rain runoff from copper and its alloys pit aluminum appreciably. In natural environments, including saline conditions, zinc is anodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... higher-alloyed materials in the most severe service areas. Specialized filming inhibitors prevent corrosion in fuel pipelines and storage tanks. Fuel pipelines and storage tanks can exhibit light corrosion due to water condensation on the surface of the metal and to oxygen ingress. Red-orange rust...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The emphasis in this chapter, as well as in other chapters in this book, is on aqueous corrosion, or corrosion in environments where water is present. The chapter describes the classification of various forms of corrosion based on the nature of the corrodent, mechanism of corrosion, and appearance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... influenced corrosion Industry or structure Problem areas Chemical processing Stainless steel tanks, pipelines, and flanged joints, particularly in welded areas after hydrotesting with natural river or well waters Power generation: nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel, and geothermal Carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metal surfaces covered with (oftentimes, sulfur-containing) corrosion products will be exposed to air and moisture. This can lead to pitting and other forms of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking unless preventive measures are implemented. When equipment is washed with water during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract Aluminum products are used extensively in natural atmospheres and in and around water. They are also widely used in building materials and as containers for chemicals and food and beverage products. This chapter discusses the corrosion mechanisms associated with these environments...