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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the demands of competitive industry on inhibitor formulations. It then describes the varying characteristics of oil wells, gas wells, water injection systems, and pipelines. The following sections provide information on the factors influencing corrosivity of produced fluids and the methods of inhibitor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... pipeline environment. Source: Ref 59 Fig. 10 Effect of acid number on crude oil wettability Fig. 11 Effect of changing crude oil type on corrosion rate as a function of water content Fig. 12 Effect of oxygen concentration on corrosion as a function of temperature. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... attack of the hull of the ship as the stray currents generated at the welding electrodes pass out of the hull through the water back to a grounded dc line located on shore. Work boats or construction barges that do welding of structures or pipelines in the water are always careful to ensure that grounds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in marine work on ships, hulls, and for applications involving the interior parts of structures such as condenser water boxes, internal parts of pumps, certain pipeline interiors. Lead alloy anodes, containing 2% silver, or 1% silver and 5% antimony, are used for cathodic protection systems in seawater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for all sizes of pipe. In recent years, the use of enamels has declined for these reasons: Hydrostatic retesting involves pressure testing the pipeline with water at a pressure that is higher than the operating pressure, typically 125% of the maximum operating pressure (MOP) of the pipeline...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., the addition of about 0.2% water and the elimination of air contamination can help decrease the SCC susceptibility ( Ref 18.42 , 18.46 ). Case Study 5: SCC of a Natural Gas Pipeline A 0.76 m (30 in.) OD API 5L Grade X-52 steel pipe began leaking after 20 years in buried service. On removal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test • D 610, Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces • D 665, Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water • D 849, Test Method for Copper Corrosion of Industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of 1100 to 1170 MPa (160 to 170 ksi). The cause of the rupture was environmentally assisted cracking due to water and hydrogen sulfide in the gas (500 ppm). Following this mishap, the regulations were modified to limit the maximum tensile strength to 870 MPa (126 ksi). Gas purity requirements were...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Magnesium anode used to cathodically protect glass-lined steel water heater Fig. 12 Zinc anodes on the underside of a fishing boat Fig. 13 Zinc bracelet anode at a joint in an offshore pipeline Fig. 15 Corrosion of aluminum anodes. (a) Uneven corrosion of aluminum anode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to environments in which a water phase is present (with the exception of alcohols) and thus does not include degradation such as high-temperature hydrogen attack or liquid-metal embrittlement. Typical compositions and mechanical properties of common carbon and low-alloy steels Table 2.1 Typical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... systems; oil and gas handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), from produced sulfides Underground pipeline industry Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 34.5 and 138 MPa (5000 and 20,000 psi). Additionally, oil and gas production from reservoirs under deep ocean waters must enter submarine production pipelines and related equipment. The production environment is quickly cooled from the high temperatures mentioned previously to near freezing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to produce iron and steel, which can revert back to hydrated iron oxides (rust) in the presence of oxygen and water ( Fig. 15.1 ). In this example, the metal returns to its more chemically stable state from the reactions it has with the surrounding environment. Fig. 15.1 The corrosion cycle of steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... deicing salts, when corrosion can be appreciable. In natural surface waters and nonsaline atmospheres, the galvanic corrosion of aluminum is rarely significant, although rain runoff from copper and its alloys pit aluminum appreciably. In natural environments, including saline conditions, zinc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... plants. The emphasis in this chapter, as well as in other chapters in this book, is on aqueous corrosion, or corrosion in environments where water is present. The chapter describes the classification of various forms of corrosion based on the nature of the corrodent, mechanism of corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... tanks. Fuel pipelines and storage tanks can exhibit light corrosion due to water condensation on the surface of the metal and to oxygen ingress. Red-orange rust particles dislodged from the metal surface contaminate the fuel and lead to filter plugging. Filming inhibitors are generally organic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metal surfaces covered with (oftentimes, sulfur-containing) corrosion products will be exposed to air and moisture. This can lead to pitting and other forms of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking unless preventive measures are implemented. When equipment is washed with water during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... 10.5006/0010-9312-17.3.97 53. Wright T.E. , New Trends in Buried Aluminum Pipelines , Mater. Perform. , Vol 15 ( No. 9 ), 1976 , p 26 54. Recommended Practice for Cathodic Protection of Aluminum Pipe Buried in Soil or Immersed in Water , Mater. Prot. , Vol 2 ( No. 10 ), 1963...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... systems, for example. The same cathodic protection principle is used with magnesium anodes buried in the ground to protect steel pipelines from corrosion. The anodes must be replaced periodically, since they are sacrificed to protect the steel. Magnesium anodes are also used within glass-lined water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., hydrotest, and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas Mothballed and waterflood systems; oil- and gas-handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH...