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Water heaters

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 10 Magnesium anode used to cathodically protect glass-lined steel water heater More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 11 Magnesium anode used to cathodically protect glass-lined steel water heater More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and the types of equipment and structures that are cathodically protected. Early applications included the protection of buried steel structures in soil, including steel pipes, tanks, and structural columns. The glass-lined steel tanks of domestic water heaters are typically protected by a magnesium rod inside...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of the models featured an internal output transformer that was rigidly attached and had an air core. The output power ratings were proven through running a water load in a work coil. The induction heaters featured what was called a filament regulated transformer-capacitor network that provided about 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... a pump, to the induction heater, with the return path going back to the pump. Raw water from the tap is passed through a temperature-control valve whose sensor is in the output waterline of the generator. Because additional tap water is added to the system, an overflow pipe passes the excess to a drain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... into the part being heated. induction coil or inductor (work coil). Water-c­ooled copper windings that circulate the electric current for induction heating. induction heater or power supply. The name given to the electrical box that changes the 60 Hz line frequency to higher frequency. iron. Pure iron is one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... water quench ( Fig. 23 ) are also installed after log shear to run isothermal extrusion. A hot-billet scalper ( Fig. 24 ) has also been developed for indirect extrusion of aircraft alloys. Fig. 19 Auxiliary equipment connected to press Fig. 20 Induction heater with hot log shear. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... was extensively pitted because the water bath was heated by a copper heater coil ( Fig. 11e ). The pits resulted from deposition of copper ions from the heater element. Another example of deposition corrosion is rain runoff from copper roof flashing, causing corrosion of aluminum gutters. Insulation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Discard shear I, II, III I, II, III, IV ... ... ... Discard saw ... ... I, II I, II I, II Press drive Oil hydraulic drive up to 25 mm/s I, II, III I, II, III, IV ... ... ... Oil hydraulic drive up to 60 mm/s ... ... I, II I, II ... Water hydraulic drive up to 300...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 538 °C (1000 °F) or even lower. Analysis of deposits in terms of percent water soluble collected from the corrosion probe at metal temperatures of 475–675 °C (890–1250 °F) at 0.4% boiler oxygen in a utility boiler fired with fuel oil containing 2.65% S, 49 ppm V, and 44 ppm Na Table 11.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter examines boiler tube failures attributed to operation-related causes. It discusses failures due to rapid start-ups, excessive load swing, excessive heat inputs, poor water chemistry control, and water-treatment methods. boiler tubes operation-related failures water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... tolerance and a long lifetime. An additional air- or water-cooling system ( Fig. 4.8 ) extends its lifespan. Further cooling of the nozzle prevents it from plugging. Fine powders and materials with a tendency to clog up the nozzle can be sprayed with a newly designed axial powder injection system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... at the opposite end. If possible, it is advisable to actually run water through the coil at the same pressure as applied to the coil at the induction heater and verify that the water flow is adequate. For critical coils, records should be maintained on the required water flow of each. Testing the water flow can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... efficiency and not to the “line-to-load” energy transfer. In radio-frequency systems, by contrast, IEEE Standard No. 54 defines the test used to determine power output. This standard describes the use of a calorimeter method for determining power into a load ( Fig. 4.2 ). In practice, a water-cooled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... surface. For example, an aluminum stirrer plate used in water was extensively pitted because a copper heater coil ( Fig. 7e) heated the water bath. The pits resulted from deposition of copper ions from the heater element. Localized corrosion of zinc-coated steel results from contact of water droplets...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... provides information on fixtures and work-handling devices, quench systems, and load matching and tuning procedures. induction heat treating power supplies THE ELEMENTS THAT make up an induction heat treating system are shown in Fig. 3.1 . These elements are the cooling water for cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... required ( Fig. 10.9 ), depending on the cross-sectional geometry of the material being heated. These rails are usually constructed of steel tubing which is water cooled, although high-temperature superalloy and nonmetallic (refractory) guides, which are not water cooled, are also in wide use. The number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... operation Carbon restore Quenching speed is too slow Lower temperature of water or polymer quenchant Lower concentration of polymer quenchant Increase impingement of change method of application Change type to faster-speed quenchant Austenitizing temperature is too low Use a longer heat...