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Water chemistry

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Water chemistry is a factor in nearly all boiler tube failures. It contributes to the formation of scale, biofilms, and sludge, determines deposition rates, and drives the corrosion process. This chapter explains how water chemistry is managed in boilers and describes the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter examines boiler tube failures attributed to operation-related causes. It discusses failures due to rapid start-ups, excessive load swing, excessive heat inputs, poor water chemistry control, and water-treatment methods. boiler tubes operation-related failures water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Hydrogen attack occurs more often in subcritical drum boilers that use a recirculating steam-generating system. Adequate control of water chemistry is critical to avoid internal deposition and corrosion of boiler tubes. The water chemistry is typically controlled by (a) water purification to remove...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 18 Thick calcium carbonate deposits on a condenser tube and a copper transfer pipe. Heavily stratified deposits reflect changes in water chemistry, heat transfer, and flow. Corrosion may be slight beneath heavy accumulations of fairly pure calcium carbonate because such layers can inhibit More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... exposed to ionizing irradiation ( Ref 6.1 – 6.5 ). This broad interpretation attributes to IASCC all instances of environmental cracking accelerated by radiation, whether acting singly or conjointly in altering water chemistry, material microchemistry, material hardness, creep behavior, and so on. While...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... problems Rapid start-ups Excessive load swing Excessive heat inputs Failures due to poor water chemistry control Water-treatment-related failures Conventional treatment All volatile treatment (AVT) Lack of quality control or improper quality control: Failures attributed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of a boiler tube. Improper boiler water chemistry further aggravates the problem. Case Study 35—Failure Investigation of Low-Temperature Reheater Tubes Background Details Low-temperature reheater (LTRH) tubes of a power boiler were damaged while at the workshop. Five tubes were found damaged while...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... be an important factor in affecting oxidation behavior of alloys. The effect of water vapor on the oxidation resistance of alloys is covered in Section 3.4.15 . 3.4.3 Surface Chemistry versus Bulk Chemistry It is important to point out that the surface chemistry may not be the same as the reported “bulk...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... oxygen, intergranular SCC will occur in the sensitized HAZ of types 304 and 316 stainless steel ( Ref 15.18 ). If the oxygen content is reduced to levels below 20 ppb, intergranular SCC is extremely difficult to initiate. This reduction can be accomplished by hydrogen water chemistry, which controls...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to occur, the stress must be high enough to crack or break the protective magnetite scale. Additionally, the boiler water has to be corrosive in nature. In other words, the boiler water chemistry is such that either the oxygen concentration of the water is high or there is deviation in pH of the water from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Window-type fracture in waterwall tube due to hydrogen damage Hydrogen damage can occur under low as well as high pH conditions. The leakage of condenser cooling water (i.e., brackish or seawater used for cooling), or even acidic excursions of boiler water chemistry for short times can develop low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Failure with Superior Iron Transport Technology, GE Infrastructure Water and Process Technologies, 2009, p 1 37 6.20 R.B. Dooley, Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Fossil and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants, Power Plant Chemistry, Vol 10 (No. 2), 2008, p 68 89 6.21 G.Y. Lai, High Temperature Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... substratum more localized than it would be in water with the same bulk chemistry but without microorganisms. This effect is a consequence of the heterogeneity of the biofilm, which in turn leads to an increase in the variability of the chemical environment from place to place along the metal surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... almost always enhances crack growth in glasses and ceramics as well as why environmental molecules similar in chemistry to water (for example, NH 3 and N 2 H 4 ) also can participate in the crack-tip reaction. The particular crack growth model that is applicable seems to depend on the type of atomic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...-based life-prediction analysis at one Swedish nuclear plant determined that nearly 50% of failures were attributable to cold work fabrication practices ( Ref 30 ). Normally resistant stainless steels can also suffer IGSCC if good-quality water chemistry in the BWR is not maintained. Solution Heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... by hydroxyl bridges, the four coordinations of beryllium being preserved by extra water molecules. This structure is shown in Fig. 8.1 . Mesmer and Baes [1967] have shown that the species Be 5 (OH) 7 3+ is formed at higher beryllium concentrations. Fig. 8.1 Molecular structure for the Be 3 (OH) 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in high-purity water, and ferritic steels crack in environments other than nitrate and caustic solutions. Similarly, the details of the microstructure and microchemistry of a susceptible material, specific ions and chemistry, pH, potential, the corrosion rates of the local crack tip associated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... Considering the cost of water, the water-cooling system usually is a closed-loop system that goes through a water chiller or cooler. The system must be piped from the inlet of the cooler/chiller to the return of the chiller/cooler. If the pipework is made from galvanized steel tube, then very aggressive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
..., namely structural, hot melt, pressure sensitive, water based, and ultraviolet and electron beam cured. The chapter ends with a discussion on some general guidelines for adhesive bonding and the basic steps in the adhesive bonding process. adhesive bonding adhesively bonded joints adhesives...