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Thinking errors

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
...), human (paper, error, sabotage), or latent (thinking, cultural). These possibilities open up the very concept of a failure, introducing things you can touch and things you cannot. The broken crankshaft illustrated earlier (see Fig. 5 in Chapter 1 ) is an obvious failure. The engine quit working...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... the system is supposed to operate. It is hard for them to think in terms of how it can fail. Think about what happens when writing and proofreading. When writing and then proofreading one’s own work, are all of the spelling, typographical, and other errors found? The answer is usually no. Proofreading...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... this objective: formation of the structure, characterization of the structure, measurement of a property, and establishment of a correlation between the structure and the property. Currently, there is much disagreement on the terms that should be applied to various groupings of these steps. Some think...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... procedures, tools, and technologies, failure analysis training instills a way of thinking that helps engineers, manufacturing specialists, purchasing specialists, field service technicians, and quality-assurance personnel become more successful. The failure analysis process outlined in this book includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... column in the FMA&A is the event- and sheet-numbering column. This column ties each FMA&A row to an event in the fault tree. The failure analysis team should only assign event numbers to basic failures, undeveloped events, human errors, normal events, and inhibiting conditions. The team should...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
.... When an investigation pursues a singular theory, it has gone off-track. Welds are a great example. Some engineers think that if a failure occurs in a system with a weld, the failure automatically must be due to the weld. They become blind to any other possible root cause. Not Understanding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... treatment 14 Design error 12 Unexpected operating conditions 9 Inadequate environmental control 5 Improper inspection/quality control 4 Wrong material 3 The various failure origins listed in Table 1 , including improper material selection, fabrication defects, design error...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... vehicle. This tragic event caused a nation in the midst of the early years of the “space race” to stop, think, and reconsider President John F. Kennedy’s May 25, 1961 promise that “we choose to go to the moon in this decade.” Weeks later, during the federal investigation of the Apollo 1 fire, astronaut...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of 1.0 HRC. Many operators think they can improve resolution to 0.5 HRC or even 0.1 HRC by extrapolation, but this is not true. Extrapolation of readings only increases measurement error when several operators are checking parts. As with Brinell testing, better resolution can be achieved by investing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.9781627083843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.t56010001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
... before fracture. Many readers might think that the actual stress in the material must be doing the same. However, as noted above, necking begins at that peak stress, which means the cross-sectional area in the component does not remain uniform, hence, the decrease in the load-displacement curves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... and Testing ” in this book describes both this issue and the relative notch sensitivity of neat, filled, and reinforced polymers. Strength of Plastics Many engineers are familiar with steel and wood and can “think and feel” in terms of these materials. Steel has a modulus of 210 GPa (30 × 10 6 psi...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... of the composition atoms. Ni 1– x Al x ( x = 0.3 to 0.6) of the CsCl-type structure is such an example, and it is called a nonstoichiometric compound. One can think of this compound as a kind of “solution” in terms of how it is mixed or as a compound from the style of bonding between atoms. 3.1.2 Components...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...? A little time spent discussing the objectives will not just identify weaknesses in the initial assumptions but will allow a best approach to be explored before the work begins, maximizing the probability of a successful analysis. Think through the project all the way to final delayering and Transmission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... as opposed to a picral or nital etch, which produces a darker pearlite. 400× Fig. 6.3 A closer view of the digitized image of the microstructure of the AISI/SAE 1020 steel that was shown on the video monitor in the center of Fig. 6.1 . One can also obtain the statistical error...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... [Exercise 4.3] Correct errors in the binary phase diagram shown in Fig. 4.6(a) . [Answer] The degree of freedom for a binary system is f ′ = 3 – q , and the number of phases in equilibrium with each other is q ≤ 3. If Fig. 4.6(a) is correct, the number of equilibrated phases exceeds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... the introduction on how to think about deformation failures and whether the heat treater even needs to be involved. Figure 1 shows what was reported to be a sudden onset event. This is actually an example of a complex failure or damage mode, because this structure was standing for quite a few years...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... that use test specimens exactly the same as those used in an engine. As shown in Fig. 5.1 , a segment of a piston ring reciprocates on a section of cylinder liner. If one thinks that piston ring/cylinder wear is of greatest concern in an engine, then this may be the type of test specimens to use. Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... Air-quenching grades of steel are more tolerant of sharp corners than liquid-quenching grades and are preferred when only minimal fillets can be used. Changes in section size can be the locus of premature failures. Figures 4 to 8 ( Ref 13 ) show failures caused by design errors and selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of the person submitting the material in order to find out as much as possible about the material and what is required. Without proper information about the material being evaluated, the metallographer will waste a lot of time through trial and error to develop the proper procedure for an accurate and thorough...