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Surface tension

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... characteristics of these joining methods. It presents a comparison between solders and brazes. Further details on pressure welding and diffusion bonding are also provided. The chapter briefly reviews the concepts of surface energy and surface tension, wetting and contact angle, fluid flow, filler spreading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... they play a role in determining the morphology and dispersion degree of the grains observed in cross sections of cast parts. It also describes the mechanism behind dendritic grain crystallization and how factors such as surface tension, capillary length, and lattice symmetry affect dendritic arm size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... surface tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... in energy is the origin of surface energy γ SV . Fig. 1.11 Relationship between surface energy and surface tension Fig. 1.12 Surface tension forces acting when a liquid droplet wets a solid surface, according to the classical model Fig. 1.13 Numerical model of a liquid droplet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... (b) Resistivity of semiconductors depends strongly on impurities. Source: G.E. Carter and D.E. Paul, Materials Science and Engineering , ASM International, 1991, p 53–54. Viscosities, surface tensions, and other properties of metals at their melting points Table A4.2 Viscosities, surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter explains how investigators determined that a stabilizer link rod fractured due to overload, possibly by a combination of tension and bending forces that occurred during an accident. It includes images comparing the fractured rod with its undamaged counterpart...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... found that 40 out of 49 wires had thinned and broke apart, and that the remaining nine wires failed in tension evidenced by cup and cone fracture and the presence of dimples on the fracture surface. Based on their findings, investigators concluded that cable snapped because of excessive thinning due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the molten solder to flow into the joint. The liquid metal appears to be sucked into the joint, and, in fact, it does become sucked in by a force called surface tension. Surface tension is a force acting along the plane of a surface. The flux removes an oxide from the copper surface and generates the desired...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.9781627083515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.9781627083522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... the transistors on the chip and the substrate. Solder-based flip-chip technology came about from the realization that the copper ball was not required and that precise z -axis separation is maintained by the relatively high surface tension of solder alloys. This modification, known as the C4 process, standing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
..., resulting in supercritical saturation and bubble formation. Secondary (micron-size) porosity occurs when dissolved hydrogen contents are low, and void formation occurs at characteristically subcritical hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen bubble formation is strongly resisted by surface tension forces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... and gas pressure or by decreasing melt flow. Metals in the liquid state are characterized by high surface tension and low viscosity. Therefore, overheating of the melt results in finer powder. Particles produced by gas atomization have near-spherical shape, which differs from particles manufactured...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Recommendations Investigation Conclusion and Recommendation Select Stress-Relieved Products, where Possible Avoid Residual Tension Stress Introduced by Plastic Deformation of Fully Hardened Materials Observe the Proper Sequence of Machining Operations and Heat Treatment to Avoid Exposing Surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... the rate of sodium losses. The excessive use of sodium (>0.01 wt%) increases misrun tendencies through increases in surface tension and diminished fluidity. Strontium additions are usually made through master alloys containing up to 10% of the modifier. While these additions are made with minimum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of the grains (as in the case of the shape of bubbles in a foam): The balance between the forces related to interfacial energy, frequently called surface tension. If surface tension is the same in all interfaces, they will meet at 120° angles. Grains (or bubbles) must fill the space so all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... PQFP mounted to test plate. At least one of the leads needs to be in contact with the mounting plate to the die. Note: the water stays in the cavity due to surface tension, defining the upper plate of the capacitor. Figure 16 Note visible wire loops embedded in the remaining thin plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., is modified by surface-tension forces at the boundaries between the two dissimilar phases, cementite and ferrite, a topic that has been reviewed comprehensively by Smith ( Ref 4 ). The equilibrium arrangement of three boundaries between grains of the same phase meeting at a triple point should be 120...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... be fixed or portable Wet abrasive grit blasting Same as dry except, where deposits are light, better surface and better control of dimensions are required Wire brushing Removing light deposits of scale, flux, and stopoff High-pressure water and steam Typically used with an alkaline cleaner...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... of joint surfaces is constrained by the components, and thus the filler is subject to triaxial tension. (c) Stress distribution at the periphery of the joint. The difference in Poisson’s ratio between the components and the filler generates a shear stress at the joint interface and an additional normal...