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Surface pretreatments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...; water is also required for the cooling tower, the ash handling plant, coal handling, and dust suppression. Water is available as surface water from ponds or lakes, rivers, reservoirs, rainwater, and the ocean or sea. It is also available as groundwater from bore wells and tube wells. Surface water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
..., as measured in nanometers. Chemical pretreatments of metal adherends are necessary to obtain microscopic surface roughness. On the other hand, pretreatments such as grit blasting produce macroscopic roughness, which is defined as features on the order of micrometers. The surface treatments producing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... is used; rinse thoroughly Brassy to dark brown Negligible Applicable to most alloys and all forms; as-cast die-cast surfaces should be prepickled to remove skin segregation; excellent paint base 180 g Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 2H 2 O, 2.5 g CaF 2 or MgF 2 (calcium or magnesium fluoride), to 1 L H 2 O...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... the tempering temperature, then the core hardness of the pretreated steel will diminish according to time and temperature. It is most important to maintain the core hardness of the pretreated steel to provide adequate support to the diffused case. Without good core support, the case can fail. Surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... (tightness) Crevice depth Exterior to interior surface area ratio Environmental Bulk solution: O 2 content, pH, chloride level, temperature, agitation Mass transport, migration Diffusion and convection Crevice solution: hydrolysis equilibria Biological influences Electrochemical reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract The nitriding process can be applied to various materials and part geometries. This chapter focuses on tool steels, pure irons, low-alloy steels, and maraging steels. Various considerations such as the surface metallurgy requirements of the die, including case depth, compound...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... times Material Pretreatment CeCl 3 treated, Untreated, time in time in days days Al 6061 Deoxidized t p < 3 t p < 1 Al 6061 (a) Deoxidized t p > 29 … Al 6061 Degreased t p > 90 t p < 1 SiC/Al 6061 (b) Deoxidized t P > 90 t p...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of sodium salts can result in problems by way of chelant corrosion. The resultant attack is in the form of dissolution or thinning of metal from the contacting tube surface, and takes place preferentially at areas of high stress. Likewise, inadvertent use of acids and caustic chemicals can cause damage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
...Abstract Abstract Some gears may need to be hardened only at the surface without altering the chemical composition of the surface layers. Induction hardening may be a suitable processing choice in these cases. This chapter provides information on the wide variety of materials that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and nitrides, the “white layer” or compound layer, with an underlying diffusion zone containing dissolved nitrogen and iron (or alloy) nitrides. The white layer enhances surface resistance to galling and wear. The diffusion zone significantly increases the fatigue endurance limit, especially in carbon and low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract Induction and flame hardening are methods of hardening the surfaces of components, usually in selected areas, by the short-time application of high-intensity heating followed by quenching. These processes are used when gear teeth require high hardness, but size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... on brazing processes, atmospheres, filler metals, and surface preparation procedures. It also includes examples of nickel-base welded components for aerospace use. Example: Modification of PWHT to Minimize Distortion Example: Resistance Seam Welding Used with GTAW General Brazing Filler Metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... in which surface atoms of a solid metal react with a substance in contact with the exposed surface. Usually the corroding medium is a liquid substance, but gases and even solids can also act as corroding media. In some instances, the corrodent is a bulk fluid; in others, it is a film, droplets...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... using the lowest temperatures practical. Titanium readily seizes and galls and requires thoroughly conditioned surfaces to remove any cracks or contamination that could propagate into the base metal on subsequent processing. In addition, anisotropy (the characteristic of exhibiting different values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... characteristics, and economy. This is followed by sections describing the influence of surface finish on corrosion resistance of stainless steel and reviewing some of the factors pertinent to balancing service environment, design requirements, and maintenance considerations. The chapter then discusses the various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., and borides of Al, B, Cr, Hf, Mo Nb, Ni, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr. Source: Ref 6 Applications for ion implantation Table 11 Applications for ion implantation Surface properties modified Substrates studied Ion species used Comments Wear Steels, WC, Ti, Co/Cr alloys, TiN coatings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to form than the carbides. However, carburization can occur kinetically in many carbon-containing environments. Carbon transport across continuous nonporous scales of Al 2 O 3 or Cr 2 O 3 is very slow, and alloy pretreatments likely to promote such scales, such as initially smooth surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-soluble beryllium and aluminum sulfates are formed by reacting beryl with sulfuric acid at 400 °C. Silica is precipitated out as an insoluble compound. However, a pretreatment is required to render beryl amenable to sulfation, since direct digestion of the ore in sulfuric acid gives low yields of 40 to 60...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... machining or grinding processes. Sometimes the form of the starting material is important. For example, a hollow shaft can best be made by starting with a tube rather than a solid bar. Shape is often characterized by aspect ratio, the surface-to-volume ratio, or the web thickness-to-depth ratio. Closely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... resistance to seizure; excellent dimensional control possible; good freedom from quench cracking (in the pretreatment); medium- to high-cost steels required; medium capital investment required Induction hardening Hard, highly wear-resistant surface (deep case depths); good capacity for contact load; good...