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Surface defects

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Parts that are heated with high austenitizing temperature can have surface defects such as blisters or solidified melts. Another common effect is the formation of scale during austenitizing. Scale formation is a natural product of all steel parts that are heat treated by induction without protective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... The most effective method for the inside flaw inspection of cold drawn bars is ultrasonic flaw detection. However, it is necessary to detect the smaller defects in the near surface area. The conventional normal beam method ( Fig. 4a ) is not satisfactory, because of the untested area near the surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the sample and helps remove the grinding products and residues continuously created during the operation. Figures 5.5 to 5.13 present a properly polished surface, several defects of polishing and drying, and some degradation that might occur if the sample surface is not properly protected after...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are processed as straight lengths up to 9 m (30 ft) long. Rolling temperatures for several alloys are listed in Table 9.2 . Heating times are kept to a minimum, because excessive scale results in surface cracks and defects. Starting bar-rolling temperatures are usually on the high side, because reheating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., time at temperature, nature of the furnace atmosphere (if any), reduction of area between the billet and the finished size, and the type of steel. To ensure the removal of decarburization and other steel surface defects, the following guidelines have been established: Stock removal for cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... other surface defects that might be present. The recommended stock removal for all nonresulfurized grades is 0.025 mm per 1.59 mm (0.001 in. per 1 16 in.) of cross section, or 0.254 mm (0.010 in.), whichever is greater. For example, for a 25 mm (1 in.) bar, recommended stock removal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of crack initiation could not be established, material defects, improper root loading, and high operating temperatures were ruled out. This chapter describes how investigators came to their conclusions and what they learned through visual and SEM examination and qualitative elemental analysis. It includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... oxide in the weld metal and lack-of-fusion defects at the weld metal/parent metal interface if the surface of the material to be welded is not free of oxide. The oxide cannot be removed by simple wire brushing—the metal surface may appear to be clean after brushing, but the oxide has only been polished...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the various methods used to join titanium alloy assemblies, focusing on welding processes and procedures. It explains how welding alters the structure and properties of titanium and how it is influenced by composition, surface qualities, and other factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the welding characteristics of titanium along with the factors that determine which welding method is most appropriate for a given application. It discusses the joinability of titanium alloys, the effect of heat on microstructure, the cause of various defects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... Reference documents Figures showing: The surface defect acceptance criteria ( Fig. 10.3 ) Tensile and fatigue test bar locations Hardness measurement locations Microstructure sample locations Fig. 10.3 Surface anomalies acceptance criteria (machined and as cast) Surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and, on steel components, are enclosed by a layer of decarburized metal. Laps, seams, and other surface defects formed during manufacture of the blanks can also lead to major problems during cold forming of the actual parts. Once any surface defect is exposed to the atmosphere, its surfaces become oxidized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... powders are discussed in this section. Good extrudability is a collective term for a low-extrusion load, high extrusion speed, good surface finish, freedom from defects, tight dimensional tolerances, and high tooling throughput. The breadth of the term makes definitions and deductions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... should have a value of approximately 3τ c . Surface, or planar, defects occur whenever the crystalline structure of a metal is discontinuous across a plane. Surface defects extend in two directions over a relatively large surface with a thickness of only one or two lattice parameters. Grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... the center. Because the surface of the billet often contains oxides (Al 2 O 3 or MgAl 2 O), this type of flow may result in internal oxide stringers. This extrusion defect is generally considered to be an “internal pipe.” On a transverse section through the extrusion, the defect will appear as an annular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... ( Fig. 21 ), in which vacancies originate at free surfaces and move by diffusion into the crystal interior. As noted, movement of atoms within a lattice structure also occurs by the two types of line defects: edge and screw dislocations ( Fig. 8 ). Application of a sufficiently large applied stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... to fail ( Ref 33 – 35 ). Quench cracking typically initiates at the surface, particularly at positions where geometrical changes occur, such as at corners, defects, and inclusions. Quench cracks always begin at the part surface and have characteristics that are easily recognized. First, the fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
.... Ramanan T. , Helping the Customer , Proc. Fifth International Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar , Vol 2 , Aluminum Association and Aluminum Extruders Council , 1992 18. Parson N.C. , Jowett C.W. , Pelow C.V. , and Fraser W.C. , Surface Defects on 6 xxx Alloy...