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Surface defects

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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.9 Relationship between stress amplitude and minimum depth of surface defects for 12% Cr steel and a 2.0% NiCrMoV steel. Source: Ref 1.22 More
Image
Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 9 Typical casting defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low-alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting More
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.6 Optical micrographs showing defects on the inner surface of type 304 stainless steel pipe (a) near weld root and (b) near through-crack. Original magnification of both: 1000× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 5 Optical micrographs showing defects on the inner surface of type 304 stainless steel pipe near weld root (a) and near through crack (b). Both 670× More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 1 Typical casting defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting More
Image
Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 9 Typical casting defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low-alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.33 Cross section of a defect close to the surface of a steel part. The defect may be a pore or a gas bubble that was open to the part surface, making possible the severe decarburization of this region. The defect is partially closed, probably due to further hot working. In these cases More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... is included that encompasses techniques used to characterize the locations and structure of internal and surface defects, including radiography, ultrasonic testing, and liquid penetrant inspection. The next group of characterization procedures discussed is destructive tests, requiring the removal of specimens...
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 10.14 Mill surface. (a) Mill finish surface on rolled aluminum sheet. (b) Fine brush-like die lines observed between larger extruded surface defects. Original length of arrow represents approximately 25 mm More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... an induction-hardened part can be important. Parts that are heated with high austenitizing temperature can have surface defects such as blisters or solidified melts. Another common effect is the formation of scale during austenitizing. Scale formation is a natural product of all steel parts that are heat...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.13 Die drawing seamless tubing. Starting material is an extruded tube hollow free from surface defects. Wall thickness and diameter are reduced by die drawing over a plug or bar mandrel. More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.3 Two conditioning processes are intermediate grinding, which is performed on semifinished billets to minimize yield loss, and final conditioning, where billets are completely ground to remove scale. Any surface defects remaining are later removed by spot grinding. This ensures More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... decarburization when induction hardening. Also, the nature and origin of various defects are explained so that proper analysis can be used to identify defects, both before and after induction hardening, that may make workpieces nonconforming. Decarburization Decarburization is a surface condition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of decarburization and other steel surface defects, the following guidelines have been established: Stock removal for cold-finished steel . Standard quality cold-finished bars are produced from hot-rolled steel. Therefore, the original decarburization that was present on the hot-rolled stock is still present...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... The most effective method for the inside flaw inspection of cold drawn bars is ultrasonic flaw detection. However, it is necessary to detect the smaller defects in the near surface area. The conventional normal beam method ( Fig. 4a ) is not satisfactory, because of the untested area near the surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... is performed on semifinished billets to minimize yield loss, and final conditioning, where billets are completely ground to remove scale. Any surface defects remaining are later removed by spot grinding. This ensures that a superior product is provided when machining, centerless grinding, and bar peeling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... forgings are seams, laps, and slivers. Laps and seams ( Fig. 8a – c ) are surface discontinuities that are caused by folding over of metal without fusion. They are usually filled with scale and, on steel components, are enclosed by a layer of decarburized metal. Laps, seams, and other surface defects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... procedures and requirements Revalidation requirements Instructions and notes Reference documents Figures showing: The surface defect acceptance criteria ( Fig. 10.3 ) Tensile and fatigue test bar locations Hardness measurement locations Microstructure sample locations Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... deformed, while the rest is dissipated as heat. 2.4 Surface or Planar Defects Surface, or planar, defects occur whenever the crystalline structure of a metal is discontinuous across a plane. Surface defects extend in two directions over a relatively large surface with a thickness of only one or two...