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Sulfurization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Corrosion rates of several austenitic stainless steels in sulfur vapor at 571 °C (1060 °F) for 1295 h Table 7.1 Corrosion rates of several austenitic stainless steels in sulfur vapor at 571 °C (1060 °F) for 1295 h Alloy Corrosion rates, mm/yr (mpy) 314 0.43 (16.9) 310 0.48...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... (such as chlorides, bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... by a discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... region represents a transition to an iron surface saturated with sulfur. Source: Ref 74 Fig. 5.35 Optical micrographs showing the microstructures of (a) alumina-former alloy 214 (Ni-16Cr-3Fe-4.5Al-Y), and several chromia-former alloys (b) 601 (Ni-23Cr-14Fe-1.4Al), (c) X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and hydrogen) and, in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals. This chapter discusses the operating principles of XRF, OES, combustion and inert gas fusion analysis, surface analysis, and scanning auger microprobe analysis. The details of equipment set-up used for chemical composition analysis as well...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Sulfur 2.55 3.66 Calcium 0.61 0.93 Iron 69.01 67.65 Magnesium 0.76 … Phosphorus 1.61 … Potassium 1.00 … EDS analysis of outer and inner surfaces of the tube Table 6.16 EDS analysis of outer and inner surfaces of the tube Element Surface amount, wt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of these families and its resultant effect on the physical and mechanical properties. A general description of the machining behavior is provided next. One must keep in mind that these are general characteristics. Further alloying of these families, such as with a sulfur addition, can result in a radical change...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Sulfamic acid 3.75 g/L Boiling Nil 7.5 g/L Boiling 2.74 Sulfamic acid + 0.375 g/L FeCl 3 7.5 g/L Boiling 0.030 Sulfur, molten 100 240 (464) Nil Sulfur monochloride ... 202 (396) =1.09 Sulfur dioxide, dry ... 21 (70) Nil Sulfur dioxide, water saturated Near 100 Room...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... “ Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography ,” E7-15, ASTM , 2015 2. “ Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens ,” E3-11, ASTM , 2011 3. “ Standard Practice for Macroetching Metals and Alloys ,” E340-15, ASTM , 2015 4. “ Standard Practice for Preparing Sulfur Prints...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...; to strong alkalis, represented by sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide at pH 14. Fig. 1 The pH of several common environments The measured pH of several common acids and alkalis are as follows: Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are strong acids and have low pH values. Boric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... is based on the same factors as in any comparison of corrosion control methods. Anodic protection is an alternative for linings or higher alloys in the storage of sulfuric acid, for example. Because an anodic protection system has some basic requirements (electrodes, potential controller, and power supply...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...-binary-phase diagram for iron and sulfur at 1.8% manganese and 18% chromium Fig. 19 Corrosion rates of various alloys in simulated evaporator liquid. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 9 Isocorrosion curves for various alloys in sulfuric acid Fig. 10 Isocorrosion curves for various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... content. Figure 1-37 The fracture of this eutectoid carbon bar that broke during heat treatment reveals the depth of hardening and an unsound center condition. Hot-acid etching of a disc from behind the fracture reveals the unsound center and extensive segregation. Figure 1-39 Sulfur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... are shown in Table 6.2 . These four elements (aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur) appear next to each other in the third row from the top of the periodic table, where they have been shaded to highlight their importance. Improvements in steel-processing techniques in the last two decades of the 1900s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... manufacturing technologies. Also known as vermicular graphite cast iron, the CG irons are more widely produced in Europe than in the United States or elsewhere. Graphite Morphology Applications Carbon Equivalent Manganese and Phosphorus Contents Sulfur Content Melt Treatment Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... alloys) Improves resistance to sulfuric acid Niobium Improves high-temperature strength Improves resistance to pitting Carbide stabilization component Age-hardening component Sulfur Improves machinability Chromium Improves oxidation and sulfidation resistance Below 18% can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... or titanium can reduce small amounts of calcium from the CaO in the slag, producing measurable calcium content in the metal. Besides carbon and oxygen, other impurities can be removed from the molten stainless. Once the steel has been deoxidized, sulfur can be readily removed by contact with a basic slag...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division Fig. 1 Oxidation resistance of carbon, low-alloy and stainless steels in air after 100 h at temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metal surfaces covered with (oftentimes, sulfur-containing) corrosion products will be exposed to air and moisture. This can lead to pitting and other forms of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking unless preventive measures are implemented. When equipment is washed with water during...