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Sulfuric acid, environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... environments, etc.) with deleterious man-made environmental contributions (road salts, atmospheric pollutants and emissions, and acid rain) provide a uniquely aggressive corrosive environment for automobiles. The goal of this chapter is to point out the connection between the characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of specific environments against which stainless steels are sufficiently resistant to select for use in the chemical process industries is too long to provide here. Some of the most important specific corrosives, such as nitric, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric, and organic acids and others, are covered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... been used for cathodes in anodic protection systems. These cathode and chemical environment combinations include: Cathode metal Environment Platinum on brass Various Steel Kraft digester liquors Illium G (Ni Cr Cu) Sulfuric acid (78–105%) Silicon cast iron Sulfuric acid (78–105...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... are atmospheric and marine environments and chemical environments such as sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, strong bases, and organic acids, such as acetic and formic. Pickling is an example of controlled, accelerated uniform corrosion. This is typically done with 10 to 20% hot sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Alloys , ASM International. Titanium corrosion resistance decreases in reducing environments, such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids. The general corrosion behavior of titanium can be extended into the “reducing-acid” region by adding a small amount (0.2%) of palladium (Pd), as shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... shows an anodic polarization curve (M) representative of an 18% Cr-82% Fe alloy in sulfuric acid at pH = 1. Representative cathodic curves for the hydrogen reaction (H) at this pH and for direct reduction of water (W) also are shown. The sum cathodic curve (SC) at each potential would represent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... Polythionic Acid Stress-Corrosion Cracking Polythionic acids (H 2 S x O 6 , where x = 3, 4, or 5) are known to attack chromium-depleted regions in sensitized austenitic stainless steels. Polythionic acid forms when a sulfur-carrying scale interacts with the moisture and oxygen present in the environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... such as manganese sulfide inclusions, sigma and chi phases, chromium depleted zones, and alloying element segregation due to coring produced by weld solidification. However, PREN provides some guidance for alloy selection for service in oxidizing chloride or acidic environments. Among the proprietary stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in refineries and petrochemical plants. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of new information has been obtained from laboratory simulation of process environments involving exposure to naphthenic acids and sulfur compounds at elevated temperature, and to lower-temperature wet hydrogen sulfide (H 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosive environments also exist in refining processes. Foremost is corrosion caused by organic acids at high temperatures, commonly termed naphthenic acid corrosion . Sulfide and other sulfur species contained in the hydrocarbon stream can also be corrosive at high concentrations and at high temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... common environments and their typical positions along the pH scale. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids are strong acids and have low pH values even in relatively dilute solutions. Boric, citric, and phosphoric acids are weaker acids and have pH values only slightly acidic. Tap water and seawater...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Sulfamic acid 3.75 g/L Boiling Nil 7.5 g/L Boiling 2.74 Sulfamic acid + 0.375 g/L FeCl 3 7.5 g/L Boiling 0.030 Sulfur, molten 100 240 (464) Nil Sulfur monochloride ... 202 (396) =1.09 Sulfur dioxide, dry ... 21 (70) Nil Sulfur dioxide, water saturated Near 100 Room...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for hot hydrochloric acid ( Ref 3 ). Nickel-molybdenum alloys are also used in the handling of other corrosive reducing environments, such as sulfuric, acetic, formic, hydrofluoric, and phosphoric acids. Figure 1(a) shows that B-2 has the lowest corrosion rate in boiling 10% sulfuric acid. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... classifications: Cl − + H 2 S + CO 2 + elemental sulfur environments Other sulfur-containing environments (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, polythionic acid) Environmentally-induced cracking has been observed in the first type of environment, both at low and high temperatures. However, in low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... to sulfuric acid. This alloy is used in sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, seawater, and in downhole oil-field environments. General Welding Considerations As nickel replaces iron in alloys, the weld pool becomes less fluid, and weld penetration is reduced. Special attention is required to avoid lack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... environments, including brine, sulfuric acid, and other acids, and was immune to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Alloy 400 and other nickel-copper alloys are used in chemical processing and pollution equipment. Capable of precipitating γ′, Ni 3 (Al,Ti) with 2.7Al-0.6Ti alloy addition, alloy K-500 (N05500...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... undergone only superficial discoloration. Molten sulfur, many organic compounds (including acids and chlorinated compounds), and most oxidizing acids have essentially no effect on this metal. Consequently, titanium is used extensively for handling salt solutions (including chlorides, hypochlorides, sulfates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and corrosives. These materials display good resistance in oxidizing and reducing environments and are not appreciably affected by concentration or temperature. Exceptions to universal resistance are hydrofluoric acid (HF), fluoride salts, sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), sulfite compounds, strong alkalis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... include the following: Reduce the aggressiveness of the environment, for example, chloride ions concentration, temperature, acidity, and oxidizing agents Upgrade the materials of construction, for example, use molybdenum-containing (4 to 6% Mo) stainless steels, molybdenum + tungsten nickel-base...