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Sulfur recovery units

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., and melting skull streams. During processing of wrought beryllium-copper alloys, parts are chemically milled (pickled) to improve surface finish. At Brush Wellman, most of the pickling is done in a nitric acid or sulfuric acid-peroxide bath. The spent acid liquor is neutralized with a caustic solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of ash, sulfur, and nitrogen can also be used. Natural gas or fuel oil is used primarily as a start-up fuel to preheat the fluidized bed. Higher combustion efficiency Lower combustion temperature because of a high coefficient of heat transfer due to rapid mixing in the fluidized bed leads to lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... generates a sulfur-containing, reducing furnace environment in the lower furnace and a pile of char bed with molten smelt (or molten salts) on the floor tube bed. The major materials problems involved tube-wall thinning due to sulfidation when carbon steels were used and subsequent severe cracking problems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of refinery units to prevent corrosion by aqueous chlorides, sulfides, and sulfur dioxide. These tubes can corrode, however, beneath acidic deposits. Titanium tubes are often required when seawater or brackish water is used for cooling. Where underdeposit corrosion of pure titanium is a problem, Ti-grade 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... residence time in this cleaner was 2 min. In the second cleaner, no agents were added, and the separation was allowed to progress for another 2 min. In the last two cleaners, beryl is depressed from the tourmaline by adding, for each ton of ore, 1 kg (2 lb) of sulfuric acid and 0.4 kg (0.8 lb...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Induction Furnaces Direct Arc Furnaces Refractory Types Acid Refractories Basic Refractories Neutral Refractories Melting Practice Arc Furnace Melting Cycle Induction Melting Cycle Selection of Metallic Charge Material Refining Reactions Boiling Removal of Phosphorous Removal of Sulfur Recovery of Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-1960s, purification by solvent extraction was installed in the United States. Neutralization of the free sulfuric acid in the leach liquor with aqueous ammonia to pH = 1 creates enough ammonium sulfate to form ammonium alum. Cooling to 15 °C causes crystallization of ammonium alum, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Recovery Unit In December 1983, two leaks were discovered at a sulfur recovery unit. More specifically, the leaks were at pipe-to-elbow welds in a 152 mm (6 in.) diameter line operating in lean amine service at 50 °C (120 °F) and 2.9 MPa (425 psig). Thickness measurements indicated negligible loss...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 197 – 203 6.32 Andijani I. and Malik A.U. , “ Sulfur and Vanadium Induced Hot Corrosion of Boiler Tubes ,” presented at Chemistry & Industry Conference , 11 – 15 Dec 2004 ( Riyadh ) 6.33 Beychok M. , “ Chemical Engineering—Acid Dew Point ,” last modified Aug...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion is an inadequate amount of oxygen in the burner zone. Under such circumstances, volatile compounds of sulfur, namely sodium and potassium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 and K 2 S 2 O 7 ), with a low melting point (450 °C, or 840 °F), form. These compounds volatilize at high temperature and condense...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... not be copper based for nitric etch methods. Jet etch machines use yellow fuming nitric and/or fuming sulfuric acid. The acid is pre heated and injected onto the die using shaped Viton rubber gaskets to form a seal for the desired opening. Glob top encapsulated epoxies require fuming sulfuric or a mix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... × % initial sulfur + % residual magnesium expected magnesium recovery Nodule count and wall thickness relationship Table 14.13 Nodule count and wall thickness relationship Section thickness, mm (in.) Typical nodule count, nodules per mm 2 19 (0.75) 100 12 (0.50) 200 6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
..., and niobium to confer particular characteristics. For example, type 405, containing nominally 12% Cr, is made with lower carbon and a small aluminum addition of 0.20% to restrict the formation of austenite at high temperature so that hardening is reduced during welding. In addition, sulfur or selenium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... element, which is a compromise between what the user would like to have and what is practical for the producer to make ( TABLE 5.1 ). They also put limits on carbon, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and sometimes other elements that are added or considered impurities. Specifications for AISI/SAE 4340...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... An ore is a natural mineral that can be mined and treated for the extraction of any of its components, metallic or otherwise. The metallic component of copper sulfide minerals is copper. Sulfur is one of the nonmetallic elements. Extraction of copper from copper sulfide ores provided ancient man...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... accepted amounts of magnesium, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus) within the limits recongnized for constructional alloy steels, added to effect changes in mechanical or physical properties. alloy system. A complete series of compositions produced by mixing in all proportions any group of two or more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 5.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids in atmospheric moisture (fogs and precipitation). See also atmospheric corrosion. acrylic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and then reprecipitated by aqueous potassium carbonate. This precipitate, after recovery by filtration, was dissolved in very dilute sulfuric acid and evaporated after the addition of aqueous ammonium carbonate. The resulting solids were filtered, washed, and dried. Ignition yielded the new oxide, BeO. The new oxide...