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Published: 01 January 2000
to convert the normally adherent and insoluble zinc carbonates into zinc sulfite and zinc sulfate. These sulfur compounds are water soluble and adhere poorly to the zinc surface. They are removed by rain with relative ease, exposing a fresh zinc surface to additional corrosion. In general, zinc dissipates More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... an orientation to materials in which the yield/tensile ratio is closer to unity, unlike either duplex or austenitic stainless steel. In the more unusual case of digesters using the sulfite process, the materials selected would be the same. As one proceeds downstream in the process, environments change...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... to 6 m/s (20 ft/s). Environments that cause erosion-corrosion of titanium are so abrasive that it is questionable whether corrosion is involved at all. Environmental Cracking Environmental cracking typically shows itself as either stress-corrosion cracking or hydrogen embrittlement. Stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the separation in the galvanic series, as described subsequently. Environmental Control In particular cases, it is possible to reduce or eliminate galvanic-corrosion effects between widely dissimilar metals or alloys in a particular environment. The use of corrosion inhibitors is effective in some cases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., particularly at the upper end of the range, adequate ductility is often difficult to achieve. Also, heat treatments developed for other applications may not be optimal for corrosion resistance in petroleum environments. Environmental Considerations There are several environmental factors that are more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of adsorption could be possible with organic inhibitors: π-bond orbital adsorption, electrostatic adsorption, and chemisorption. A more simplistic view of this mechanism of corrosion inhibitors can be described as controlled precipitation of the inhibitor from its environment (water and hydrocarbons) onto metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract All materials are susceptible to corrosion or some form of environmental degradation. Although no single material is suitable for all applications, usually there are a variety of materials that will perform satisfactorily in a given environment. The intent of this chapter is to review...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... environments of nuclear light-water reactors is discussed later in this chapter. Effects of Environmental Variables Temperature is an important variable in determining whether chloride SCC will occur. The traditional engineering viewpoint, based on practical experience ( Ref 4.53 ), has been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... important properties. Coatings and linings may protect substrates by three basic mechanisms: Barrier protection Chemical inhibition Galvanic (sacrificial) protection Barrier protection is achieved when coatings completely isolate the substrate from the environment. Chemical inhibition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... or modified 300-series austenitic grades. A good example of a high-alloy stainless steel is 20Cb-3 (N08020), which was designed for improved resistance to sulfuric acid. This alloy has been used in many applications in a wide variety of chemical and allied industry environments. The presence of niobium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... gamma TiAl (Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr at.%) (see Chapter 8, “Melting, Casting, and Powder Metallurgy,” in this book) for use in the fifth- and sixth-stage compressor. Heavier nickel-base superalloys were previously used in these high-temperature environments. The GEnx is a quieter engine with decreased fuel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... commonly used for steel and other metals are not required for superalloys. This is due to: The inherent corrosion resistance of superalloys in a wide range of environments The fact that the end use of superalloy parts frequently does not require a polished finish A frequent reason...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... electrical/electronic connectors, integrated circuit lead frames, electronic components for severe, automotive, under-the-hood environments, circuit breaker components, and resistance welding equipment. Age-Hardening Alloys Age-hardening alloys are also included in the high-copper alloy category. Age...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... associated with many natural environments, including body fluids. Because titanium metal has a high affinity for oxygen, the protective oxide film formed on the metal or its alloys can effectively reheal itself almost instantly when fresh metal surfaces are exposed to air or water. Under anhydrous conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the type of material being prepared. Quite often, samples submitted to the metallographic laboratory require a detailed analysis that can be used as the basis to solve a problem. An example would be a part or component that fractured in a severe service environment. In this situation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... dredge. Weight 35 ton The Mining Industry Steel castings are used extensively in mining equipment. The large scale equipment that must survive in hostile environments requires robust components that are most economically made as castings. The wear requirements of some equipment are best met...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., sodium silicate Binders Maximize bonding strength at high Dextrin, sulfite lye, and linseed oil Insulating and protective coatings Release and chilling coatings Base/primer coat — A diluted version for better adhesion Fine finish coating (fillers = talc and mica) Coarse...