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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...<xref rid="t52080201-t07-tn1" ref-type="table-fn">(a)</xref> Table 7.7 Results of corrosion tests at 1000 °C (1832 °F) for 100 h in Ar-30H 2 -30H 2 O-1H 2 S (a) Alloy Total affected depth, μm (mils) Comments 310SS 92 (3.6) Internal sulfidation 810 (31.9) Liquid sulfides 605 (23.8) Liquid sulfides 310HP (b) &gt;1500 (59.1) Liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... at 810 °C for 60 s, cooled in air, four cycles. 210 HV. Picral 100×. (h) Initial structure as in (d). Austenitized at 810 °C for 60 s, cooled in air, six cycles. 205 HV. Picral 100×. Fig. 8.14 (Part 1) Overheating: grain-boundary sulfide precipitation. 0.3% C, Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (0.32C-0.25Si...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...% Ni, 8% Cr, 4% Al; and 5: 98% Ni, 2% Al. Areas 1, 4, and 5 were essentially nickel oxides, area 2 was nickel sulfide, and area 3 was pure nickel. Courtesy of Haynes International, Inc. Fig. 9.3 Relative hot corrosion resistance of experimental alloys obtained from burner rig tests at 950...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) in H 2 -1.2H 2 O-0.4H 2 S (5 × 10 –22 atm p O 2 , 4×10 –9 atm p S 2 ). Also included was the data generated from H 2 -1.2H 2 O-7CO-0.4H 2 S (5 × 10 –22 atm p O 2 , 5 × 10 –9 atm p S 2 , and 0.3 a c ). The latter environment caused carburization in addition to sulfidation/oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... oxalate, beryllium oxide, beryllium oxide carboxylates, beryllium perchlorate, beryllium phosphates, beryllium sulfate, and beryllium sulfide. beryllium compounds BERYLLIUM forms a wide range of inorganic and organic compounds. Some of the most important families of compounds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., microporosity, macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... section. Transmission electron micrograph. 20,000×. Fig. 6.17 (Part 1) Manganese sulfide inclusions in cast steels. (a) and (b) 0.15% C (0.14C-0.29Si-0.31Mn-0.001 Al, wt%). As cast; incompletely deoxidized with silicon alone. Etchant: nil. (a) 200×. (b) Scanning electron micrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... It explains why manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter focuses on resistance characteristics and methods of protecting different forms of high-temperature gaseous corrosion, namely high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, hydrogen effects, and hot corrosion. high-temperature gaseous corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., sulfide stress cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking, hydrogen embrittlement cracking, stress-corrosion cracking, velocity-accelerated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion control is provided. petroleum refineries petrochemical plants materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... in martensitic stainless steels and describes sulfide stress corrosion resistance of type 410 weldments. hydrogen-induced cracking martensitic stainless steel sulfide stress corrosion resistance weld corrosion welding weldments MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS are essentially Fe-Cr-C alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... as a machinability agent in stainless steels is very complex and not necessarily straightforward, but in general sulfur has been extremely beneficial in increasing the machinability of stainless steels. Generally, as the molten metal cools to solid form, sulfur combines with manganese to form manganese sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... for steels with greater strength and corrosion resistance. Martensitic and duplex stainless steels have provided the corrosion resistance and strength to deal with higher levels of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, chlorides, and acidity. This chapter reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...) Lamellar tear along a central segregate containing numerous elongated manganese sulfide inclusions. Unetched. 100×. (c) Lamellar tear initiated at groups of angular oxide inclusions. 1% nital. 250×. (d) Semikilled carbon-manganese steel. Testpiece (cut in short transverse direction) containing large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... the rapid cooling necessary for the austenite-to-martensite transformation traps the hydrogen in a state of supersaturation in the martensite. For this reason rapid cooling rates must be avoided. Cracking Due to Environments Containing Hydrogen Sulfide High-strength steel pipes used in drilling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and 4% picral etch. 800× Fig. 3.33 A manganese sulfide stringer (dark gray) appearing as a “pearl necklace”-type morphology (see long arrow) at a prior austenite grain boundary in a 0.7% C-3% Cr steel forging exposed to 1170 °C (2500 °F) for 1.5 h. Pearlite (the dark etching constituent) has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... , Bi 2 O 3 , (Fe, Mn) (Nb, Ta) 2 O 6 Phosphates LiF · AlPO 4 , Th 3 (PO 4 ) 4 · X (Re) (a) PO 4 Silicates Be 3 AlSi 6 O 18 , ZrSiO 4 , Sc 2 Si 2 O 7 , NiSiO 3 · X MgSiO 3 , ThSiO 4 , LiAlSi 2 O 6 Sulfates BaSO 4 , SrSO 4 , PbSO 4 , CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O, CuSO 4 · 2Cu(OH) 2 Sulfides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosive environments also exist in refining processes. Foremost is corrosion caused by organic acids at high temperatures, commonly termed naphthenic acid corrosion . Sulfide and other sulfur species contained in the hydrocarbon stream can also be corrosive at high concentrations and at high temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., burning coal containing about 3.0 to 3.5% S and about 300 to 400 ppm chlorine. Source: Ref 14 . Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. Fig. 10.9 Scanning electron microscopy backscattered electrons image of the corrosion products showing initiation of sulfidation attack on the tube, where pitting...