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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Sulfur is one of the most common corrosive contaminants in high-temperature industrial environments and its presence can cause a number of problems, including sulfidation. This chapter describes the sulfidation behavior of a wide range of alloys as observed in three types of industrial...
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.3 Standard free energies of formation of selected sulfides. Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.27 Formation of external sulfides on top of the chromium oxide scale and the formation of internal sulfides. Source: Ref 14 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 3 AISI 303 chip breaking at the sulfides. Courtesy of Ugitech More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 7 X-ray examination showing manganese sulfides and Ugima oxides coating the tool surface. EDAX, energy dispersive analysis by x-ray. Courtesy of Ugitech More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 19.15 Manganese sulfides in steel. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.33 A manganese sulfide stringer (dark gray) appearing as a “pearl necklace”-type morphology (see long arrow) at a prior austenite grain boundary in a 0.7% C-3% Cr steel forging exposed to 1170 °C (2500 °F) for 1.5 h. Pearlite (the dark etching constituent) has nucleated on the sulfide More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.35 (a) A manganese sulfide dendritic array in the 0.7% C-3% Cr forging steel exposed to 1170 °C (2500 °F) for 1.5 h and (b) type II manganese sulfide inclusions in an as-cast ASTM A36 steel slab. Unetched. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.41 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 1015 casting showing iron sulfide surrounding a manganese sulfide inclusion. Unetched. 2000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.2 (a) As-polished specimen of AISI/SAE 1080 steel showing manganese sulfide inclusions and (b) same area etched in 4% picral. In the etched condition, martensite (arrows) and the inclusions are unattacked, adding to possible confusion. 200× More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 5.15 (Part 1) Deformation of manganese sulfide inclusions during hot rolling. (a) and (b) Semikilled resulfurized low-carbon steel (type I sulfides present in ingot. 0.13C-0.01 Si-1.11Mn-0.28S-0.003Al-0.0290 (wt%). (a) Rolled at 900 °C, reduced 8×. Unetched. 250×. (b) Rolled More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 5.21 (Part 1) Identification of manganese sulfide inclusions in resulfurized steels of higher carbon contents. (a) and (b) 0.15% C carburizing steel, resulfurized (0.16C-0.25Si-1.10Mn-0.09S-0.028P, wt%). Hot-rolled bar. 170 HV. (a) Picral. 100×. (b) Picral. 500×. (c) and (d More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 5.21 (Part 2) (e) to (g) Resulfurized low-carbon steel. (e) Manganese sulfide inclusions. 100×. A, as-polished; B, treated by Whiteley method. (f) Manganese sulfide inclusions. Etched with thiosulfate/citric acid/lead acetate. (g) Manganese sulfide inclusion with silicate tail More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.68 Micrograph of as-cast steel containing a network of iron sulfide. The low melting point of the sulfide makes it the last to solidify, forming the network (or continuous “films”) on the grain boundaries. The material is then brittle at high temperature (“hot shortness”) (see Fig More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.69 Micrographs of as-cast steel containing iron sulfide network (a) and globular manganese sulfide (b). No etching. The amount and size of the nonmetallic inclusions shown in this and Fig. 8.68 are almost impossible to find in modern steels produced with current refining processes More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.70 Micrograph of steel containing iron sulfide, hot worked. The presence of the sulfide in the grain boundaries has caused hot shortness (cracks are evident). No etching. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.76 (a) Sulfide nonmetallic inclusion in as-cast steel. SEM, BE. No etching (b) EDS spectrum of the inclusion. Quantitative analysis calculated from EDS results. Manganese sulfide. More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 28 Scanning electron micrograph of sulfide stringers in a piece of bar stock More
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Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 23-6 Sulfide inclusions in 0.35 percent carbon, 0.74 percent manganese, 0.39 percent silicon steel, (a) Type II, 0.009 percent aluminum residual content after deoxidation, (b) Type III, 0.030 percent aluminum residual content after deoxidation, and (c) Type I, silicon killed, 500x ( 21 ) More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 2 Sulfide stress cracking of a hard weld of a carbon steel vessel in sour water service. BHN, Brinell hardness. 40× More