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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and nickel aluminides. The combustion gas stream was generated by using No. 2 fuel oil containing about 0.4 wt% S with an air-to-fuel ratio of 35 to 1 and injection of either 5 or 50 ppm sea salt into the combustion gas stream. The specimens were loaded in a carousel, that rotated at 30 rpm during testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... was expected to bend the paddles. The strength results were not particularly valuable, but some engineers realized that spinning a paddle or other type of simulated airfoil in the hot gas stream might approximate the oxidation/corrosion conditions in a gas turbine. Thus burner rig testing was born. Simple...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... the flue gas stream makes a 90° directional turn and creates nonuniform flow of gas stream and uneven distribution of fly-ash caused by centrifugal force ( Ref 8 ). Other systems where erosion can present a serious material issue include coal gasification, combined cycles, and gas turbine. Gas turbines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
.... Turbine blades are exposed to the hot gas stream and are subject to hot corrosion and oxidation in the same way as combustor and vane surfaces. Additionally, the turbine blades must withstand significant structural loads, caused by centrifugal and thermal stresses. Furthermore, the tips of the rotating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... broken the blades of the 19th stage and caused further damages down- stream. Case 53: Failure of Compressor Blades in a Power Plant / 195 Conclusion Recommendation The failure of the rotor could be attributed to inadequate clear- The speci ed clearances in this region should be rede ned with ances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... bed combustion (FBC) boiler is one in which a fire bed is produced by means of finely divided solid particles, such as silica sand, through which an evenly distributed stream of air or fluidizing gas is passed upward such that the sand particles remain in suspension. Fluidization improves mixing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... … Melt disintegration system/environment Nozzle; argon stream Expansion of dissolved hydrogen against vacuum and Ar + H 2 mixture Rotating consumable electrode; argon or helium Rotating consumable electrode; argon Rotating disk; forced helium convective cooling (a) VIM, vacuum induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of erosion is water erosion of shorelines on bodies of water or flowing streams and rivers. Creeks through treeless fields continue to get wider with every heavy rain event. If the creek cuts through fields of just soil, the mechanical action of the flowing water carries away soil from the banks of the creek...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... to about 34% and at heat rates as low as 10,000 Btu/kW · h. The efficiency can be improved by utilizing the heat energy from the exhaust gases which exit the turbine at about 480 to 595 °C (900 to 1100 °F). This can be done in two ways. A regenerative heat exchanger placed in the exhaust stream can be used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... dynamic burner rig test to simulate a gas turbine combustion environment. The simulated combustion gas stream was generated by burning fuel oil (a mixture of two parts No. 1 fuel and one part No. 2 fuel) with an air-to-fuel ratio of approximately 50 to 1 in a laboratory burner rig. Most of the air...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... processing, such as ethylene cracking furnace tubes, are exposed to temperatures higher than 980 °C (1800 °F) and carburizing gas streams on the internal diameter (ID) of the tube, application of composite tubes with a carburization- and coking-resistant alloy cladding on the tube ID can potentially increase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... General oxidation: scaling, which may be a major problem under certain conditions Metal dusting: a form of carburization that occurs rapidly in localized areas due to carburizing gases and/or process streams containing carbon and hydrogen Carburization: diffusion of carbon, causing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of titanium alloy applications in hot aqueous chlorides in metal-to-metal joints, gasket-to-metal interfaces, and under process stream deposits. Given these potential crevices in hot chloride-containing media, localized corrosion of unalloyed titanium and other alloys may occur, depending on pH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... is to be tapped. Figure 4.7 shows a schematic for a bottom-pour mold setup. The heat is tapped by the opening of a bottom plug in the teeming ladle. As the heat enters the central pouring sprue or “trumpet,” a stream of argon may be flowed alongside it to provide shrouding against oxygen and nitrogen pickup...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the materials selection criteria (though rudimentary), are different. In its mildest form, erosive wear manifests often as a light polishing of the upstream surfaces of components penetrating the flow-stream, or of bends or other stream-deflecting structures. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 , which shows carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... management. Often, anything that can be safely done to keep a process unit on stream for long periods of time will be of great benefit. A large proportion of corrosion problems are actually caused by start-up or shutdowns. For example, when equipment is opened to the atmosphere for inspection and repair...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... of the metal. Figure 7.7(b) illustrates the profile of free-flowing liquid. The velocity V keeps increasing with the increase in height h . The metal stream reduces in diameter to satisfy Eq 7.7 . This creates a negative pressure with a taperless sprue, causing air aspiration. The air gets trapped...