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Steelmaking

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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 1 Principal steps in steelmaking. Source: Ref 1 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 19.8 Influence of sulfur content and steelmaking practice on temperature ranges for overheating and burning. Steelmaking practices are: consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted (CEVAM), basic-electric (BE), and open-hearth (OH). Source: Ref 19.22 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2.3 Steelmaking, in the melt shop, involves chemical composition changes and increase in temperature to keep the charge in the liquid state. In older ironmaking processes, refining was conducted without reaching the liquid state. Residues such as slags were retained in the product. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2.10 Most usual vacuum degassing processes used in steelmaking. Left to right: stream (or ladle-to-mold) degassing; ladle degassing; circulation degassing in RH reactor. More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 19.2 Principal steps in steelmaking. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2022
Fig. 2.6 Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter traces the history of steelmaking over three millennia, from the discovery of martensite in a mining tool dating from the twelfth century B.C. to the nineteenth century development of the Bessemer and Siemens processes. It also describes the work of early metallographers who...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... steels and discusses the influence of composition, steelmaking practice, and application environment. chemical composition heat treatment high-strength steel stress-corrosion cracking STEELS with yield strengths greater than 1240 MPa (180 ksi), corresponding to hardnesses greater than 40...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... and the development of the Kelly-Bessemer process by Alexander Holley. The chapter then discusses how Andrew Carnegie lowered the cost to produce steel, how he entered the iron and steelmaking industry, and how Captain Billy Jones joined Carnegie to expand Carnegie steel. The chapter further provides information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of the development of tool steel technology. It begins with a record of steelmaking in ancient and medieval times. The crucible melting process involved in making steel is then discussed. This is followed by a description of the increasing use...
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Published: 01 September 2005
Fig. 24 Cleanness and rolling contact fatigue life improvements in carburized steels as steelmaking practices have changed. Source: Ref 57 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
. Slab thickness, 225 mm (9 in.). Central line crack. The top right corner of these macrographs have been subjected to digital editing to eliminate traceability marks from the steelmaker. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... in converting pig iron into cast iron and steel. cast iron manufacturing pig iron steelmaking THIS CHAPTER PROVIDES a brief overview of iron and steel manufacturing and the major equipment involved in the process as well as identifying where the castings specified in this book fit into the overall...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
. The presence of carbides is more evident in the lower strength steels in this series. Because all plates are expected to come from the same steelmaker, it is probable that the single difference between the different strength plates is the tempering temperature. Etchant: nital 2% and picral 4%. Courtesy More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of organized labor in the steel industry in the twentieth century. integrated steel industry steelmaking organized labor The United States Steel Corporation The birth of the big integrated steel industry began with the formation of the United States Steel Corporation (USS) in 1901...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of the minimill industry, and the rapid growth of Mittal Steel. industrial decline integrated steel industry steelmaking Strike of 1959 The steel strike of 1959 was a watershed moment in the history of the U.S. integrated steel industry. The strike itself was not the main event, but it exposed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... products by primary processing: inclusions and chemical segregation. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during steelmaking and casting, and segregation is a result of chemistry variations produced during dendritic solidification of steels. Such segregation may cause the microstructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... millions and spent 13 long years developing what would eventually become one of the most significant steelmaking discoveries of the 20th century. Joslyn, of course, got their license right away, in April 1968. They were eager to show what they had accomplished. In January 1970, Haynes Stellite became...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of the minimill industry along with the consolidation of the industry into large corporations. The chapter ends by providing information on novel processes developed for making iron. flanged beams flat products minimills railroad rails steelmaking ironmaking There was little change...