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Steel pipe

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure of stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor (BWR) service. It explains where most of the failures have occurred and provides relevant details about the materials of construction, fabrication...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes how ultrasonic testing came to be a viable method for evaluating intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in large-diameter stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor service. Intergranular SCC can be difficult to detect using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... (t/4 position). (b) and (d) mid-thickness (t/2 position). Ferrite (ferritic grain size ASTM 11) and fine pearlite. Some banding. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Tubarão, ES, Brazil. Fig. 14.11 Dual-phase API X100 steel for piping produced through controlled rolling. C = 0.06%, Mn = 1.96%, Nb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... in an actual continuous digester weld. 40× Fig. 12 Yield strength profile at 288 °C (550 °F) across a 660 mm (26 in.) diam type 304 stainless steel pipe weldment. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 2 Sulfide stress cracking of a hard weld of a carbon steel vessel in sour water service. BHN, Brinell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... are often overlooked during the selection process. For example, plain carbon steel may be the optimal choice for vessels and piping that must contain noncorrosive hydrocarbon gases, such as ethylene, under pressure at normal temperatures. However, the cooling effect that occurs during venting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion cell on a buried steel pipe. Under freely corroding conditions, an area on the steel surface becomes an anode, and another area becomes a cathode. The potential difference between the anode and cathode gives rise to a corrosion current flowing from the anode into the soil. The corrosion current...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of steel. It explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... at a grain with primary dendrites lying parallel to the surface rather than in grains with dendrites oriented at an angle to the surface. Fig. 5 Thiosulfate pitting in the HAZ of a type 304 stainless steel welded pipe after paper machine white-water service. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas vessels, and refinery equipment. References References 1 Sumitomo Products for the Oil and Gas Industries , www.sumitomometals.co.jp...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of the reticulated grooves on the interior of the pipe Fig. 17 Graville diagram showing susceptibility of steels to hydrogen-induced cold cracking relative to carbon content and carbon equivalent (CE), where CE = %C + (%Mn + %Si)/6 (%Ni + %Cu)/15 + (%Cr + %Mo + %V)/5. Susceptibility to cold cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Oxygen is required for passivity of stainless steels. In one case, simply identifying stainless steel pipes by attaching transparent adhesive tape to the outside of the pipes was responsible for corrosion when moisture condensed on them. The tape prevented the access of oxygen so the regions under...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Fig. 15 Internal surface of carbon steel pipe section damaged by cavitation Fig. 13 Section of ASTM A106 carbon steel pipe with wall severely damaged by hydrogen attack. The pipe failed after 15 months of service in hydrogen-rich gas at 34.5 MPa (5000 psig) and 320 °C (610 °F). (a) Overall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... occur when the operating temperature is in the range of 200 to 250 °C (390 to 480 °F). The concentration of NaOH necessary to produce cracking increases as the temperature decreases. Case Study 1: Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Cracking of Steel Pipe A 25 mm (1 in.) outside diameter (OD) drain line made...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Corrosion accidents due to external corrosion, % 64.9 36.0 84.6 Corrosion accidents due to internal corrosion, % 33.6 63.2 3.8 Corrosion accidents cause not specified, % 1.5 0.9 11.5 Source: Ref 6 Chemical and tensile requirements of common long seam welded line pipe steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., particularly in welded areas after hydrotesting with natural river or well waters Power generation: nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel, and geothermal Carbon and stainless steel piping and tanks; copper-nickel, stainless, brass, and aluminum-bronze cooling water pipes and tubes, especially during construction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... also occurs when most metals are exposed to highly acidic conditions ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 Two views of deep pits in a type 316 stainless steel centrifuge head due to exposure to CaCl 2 solution Fig. 5 (a) Pitting of a carbon steel pipe exposed to a strong mineral acid. (b) Close-up view...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... and annealing processes are discussed. A more in-depth discussion of induction heat treatment is presented in the book by Semiatin and Stutz. [1] Surface Hardening Localized Annealing of Steel Pipe Welds As in heating prior to hot working and in heat treating, induction melting relies on electric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and pressures. Among the many metals and alloys that are available, relatively few are used for the construction of process equipment and piping ( Ref 1 ) due to the adverse influence on cost. However, materials used in process units include a wide variety of alloys, including carbon steel, cast irons, low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... sulfides on steel, or of lead sulfate on lead. Such films can be cathodic to the base metal exposed at breaks or pores in the scale ( Fig. 1 ) or even to such extraneous items as valves or pumps in a piping system. Fig. 1 Schematic showing how breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) can lead to galvanic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... waters Nuclear power generation Carbon and stainless steel piping and tanks; copper-nickel, stainless, brass and aluminum bronze cooling water pipes and tubes, especially during construction, hydrotest, and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas industries Mothballed and waterflood...