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Steam condensate

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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 2 Crevice corrosion under seal in type 316 stainless steel sieve from steam condenser cooling water system exposed to flowing seawater for two years at less than 40 °C (104 °F). Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... turbine plants. A power plant using steam as its working medium works on the principle of the Rankine cycle such that the steam is first generated in a boiler, expanded in the prime mover, condensed in the condenser, and fed into the boiler again. Figure 2.1 gives a typical layout of a coal-based...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to have a continual source of incoming water. This incoming water is termed make-up water. It is raw water that is pretreated through processes such as demineralization or softening for its subsequent use for steam generation. 7.1.2 Condensate Water In a typical thermal power plant, low-pressure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Seamless tube 25Cr-20Ni 815 1500 Source: Ref 4.2 , 4.20 4.4 Materials for Condenser Tubes In thermal power plants, low-pressure steam leaving the steam turbine is condensed back to water to be reused as boiler feedwater. The objective is to improve the thermal efficiency...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... start-ups, improper warm-up procedures, excessive load swings, and excessive heat inputs, which in turn lead to short-term overheating, resulting in failure of a tube. It is necessary to follow the protocol for start-up, operation, and shutdown as recommended by the manufacturer for a steam boiler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... applied in numerous water treatment processes within a refinery, such as in cooling water and steam generation systems. Typical applications for refinery corrosion inhibitors Table 1 Typical applications for refinery corrosion inhibitors Unit Process stream Filming inhibitor Neutralizer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... the economizers, superheaters, and reheaters on account of the carryover of wet steam or fly ash in these areas. Typical reasons for soot blower erosion are: Improper location of the soot blower Operation of the soot blower with entrapped condensed water in the steam or air Blower causing a high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t6244000x
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... with the appearance of “tinsmiths” and “white-iron men” as trades. Newcomen's discovery of the effectiveness of the internally condensing steam engine in 1708 is attributed to the faulty repair, by soldering, of a blowhole in the cast bronze cylinder. This permitted a spray of external condenser water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to form a fireball in the combustion chamber. The combustion takes place at 1300 to 1700 °C (2370 to 3090 °F) and the heat generated is transferred to the feedwater that flows through the waterwall tubes that form the walls of the furnace. The feedwater consists of condensate or condensed steam returned...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... and convert the mechanical energy of rotation into electrical energy in the generator. The exit steam from the LP turbine is condensed in the condenser and is once again fed back to the boiler through the feedwater heaters and pumps. A closed loop of the water and steam is thus maintained. A second water loop...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in water service and commonly are restricted to applications below 260 °C (500 °F) because of strength limitations. Admiralty brass (C44300) tubes have been extensively used in water-cooled condensers and coolers at most refineries. However, in general, copper alloys suffer accelerated corrosion in both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... impurities using makeup water, polishing of returned condensate, deaeration, and blowdown, and (b) chemical treatments to control pH, electrochemical potential, and dissolved oxygen concentration ( Ref 1 ). In the waterwall tubes, as steam forms, dissolved solids concentrate in the boiler water; once...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... for the condensation of both moisture and acid, especially during shutdown cycles. Case Study 27—Failure Investigation of Economizer Tube of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Background Details Leakage was noticed in the economizer tube of a boiler during a hydro test. The MOC of the tube was SA 210 Grade A1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... ). The guidelines for solid waste combustion introduced by the European authorities require that the temperature should be above 850 °C (1560 °F) for a 2 s residence time at the level 1 m above the secondary or tertiary air ( Ref 6 ). The MSW boilers operate at much lower steam pressures and temperatures compared...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for Determining Corrosivity of Adhesive Materials • D 3316, Test Method for Stability of Perchloroethylene with Copper • D 3482, Practice for Determining Electrolytic Corrosion of Copper by Adhesives • D 3603, Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Steam Turbine Oil in the Presence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... ). Thus, hydrogen-assisted cracking is not usually observed in steels with yield strengths below 504 MPa (72 ksi). In many cases, pure water steam condensate, or even atmospheric moisture acts as a sufficiently aggressive corrosive medium. However, it is much more common for hydrogen-assisted cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... with oxidizing anionic salts such as nitrates, molybdates, chromates, permanganates, and vanadates, and also with oxidizing cationic salts, including ferric, cupric, nickelous, and noble metal compounds. Fresh Water/Steam Titanium alloys are highly resistant to water, including natural waters and steam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... of the working medium (water or steam) within the water side of the boiler tubes involves a cyclic regenerative Rankine cycle. Low-pressure steam from the turbine exit is processed into feedwater via the condenser, feedwater heaters, and deaerators. The feedwater is then pumped into the economizer, where...