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Stable crack propagation

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Published: 01 September 2005
Fig. 8 Fatigue fracture in gas-carburized and modified 4320 steel. (a) Overview of initiation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation. (b) Same area as shown in (a), but with extent of stable crack indicated by dashed line. (c) Higher magnification of intergranular initiation More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... is the underlying basis on which unstable crack propagation is founded. The study of stable fatigue crack growth did not, however, begin with the Griffith-Irwin crack mechanics development; it had a long prior history before the modern theory of crack mechanics entered the scene. First, Head ( Ref 9.17 ), Frost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... by the imposed stress, gives rise to a complex process of growth and interaction of defects, which ultimately leads to the initiation of macroscopic cracks. A crack propagates first in a stable manner to a stage at which it undergoes a transition to unstable (uncontrolled) propagation. The lifetime...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... fractures of carburized steels consist of well-defined stages of crack initiation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation. The fracture sequence is strongly influenced by the gradients in strength, microstructure, and residual stress that develop in carburized steels. Figure 8 shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for discussion Fatigue Crack Propagation Fracture Mechanics Concepts and the Defect-Tolerant Philosophy The use of fracture mechanics for fatigue design is based on the tacit assumption that structural components are intrinsically flawed and capable of sustaining a considerable amount of stable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals and their alloys. It is intended to familiarize the reader with the phenomenological and mechanistic aspects of stress corrosion. The phenomenological description of crack initiation and propagation describes well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... their use on different metals and alloys. The chapter also discusses design-based approaches for preventing fatigue failures. crack initiation crack propagation fatigue analysis fatigue fracture appearance fatigue life fatigue strength THE DEFINITION OF “FATIGUE” according to ASTM Standard E...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...). Rupture also may be due to stresses and the presence of environmental conditions incapable of immediate film repair. The rupture propagates into the underlying metal and is sustained by the concentration of stress at the leading edge of the crack and by corrosion mechanisms associated with a crevice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of some form or other occurring in the bulk of the specimen. The presence of inelasticity in the entire specimen, as well as at the crack tip, results in additional energy being required for crack propagation. Hence, in any mechanical test, the energy measured to propagate a crack consists...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., a large enough variation or fluctuation in the applied stress, and a sufficiently large number of cycles of the applied stress. The discussion covers high-cycle fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation. The chapter then discusses the stages where fatigue crack nucleation and growth occurs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-intensity on crack propagation rates, and describes several mechanical fracture models, including corrosion tunnel, film-induced cleavage, and tarnish rupture models. crack initiation crack propagation stress-corrosion cracking STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) is a term used to describe service...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... be observed, occurred from the bottom of the tooth, propagating toward the internal diameter. The visual aspect of the cracked surface is an indication that the crack occurred by nucleation and propagation of the cracks through cyclic efforts (fatigue) of the unidirectional type. The final crack happened...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article introduces the subject of fractography and how it is used in failure analysis. The discussion covers the structure of and fracture and crack-propagation behavior of polymeric materials, the distinction between the ductile and brittle fracture modes on the basis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the influence of material and environmental variables on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and the mechanisms proposed for SCC in stainless steel, comparing the mechanism of SCC with hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, it provides information on biocorrosion and microbiologically induced corrosion in ambient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... ). These features are the primary reason why fatigue in welds is dominated by crack propagation. Volumetric Imperfections Volumetric imperfections include porosity and slag inclusions. Because these types of imperfections tend to be nearly spherical in form, their notch effect is minor and they usually have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... into two or more pieces under the action of stress. Fracture can be classified into two broad categories: ductile fracture and brittle fracture. As shown in the Fig. 13.1 comparison, ductile fractures are characterized by extensive plastic deformation prior to and during crack propagation. Brittle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... to evaluate the crack-propagation characteristics of materials ( Ref 5 and 6 ). A square plate with a brittle weld underbead is subjected to an explosive charge in an open die and the natures of the resulting deformation and cracking are characterized as functions of test temperature. The highest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... loads, corrosive environments, or both. The initial crack growth rate is so slow that the flaw remains undetectable by all but the most sophisticated techniques. Crack growth rates may accelerate with time, but the propagation remains stable. When the crack reaches a critical flaw size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... by a brief review of failure types from fracture, distortion, wear, and corrosion. Fracture is a common damage feature, because the vast majority of mechanical failures involve crack propagation—typically classified as ductile, brittle, and fatigue, as briefly described in more detail. Distortion, wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... propagation at stress levels below those typically experienced for a particular alloy in a benign environment. There are many arguments against this model. The principal criticism is that it greatly underestimates the work of fracture and does not account for the discontinuous crack growth that has been...