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Springs (elastic)

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2.22 The entropy elasticity of chain polymers. An spring is also an example of entropy elasticity. However, the entropy increases when air expands, contrary to the case of rubber. (a) The shorter x is, the larger entropy becomes. (b) The elastic coefficients of various matters More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... are elastic, all metal parts deflect (or distort) even under relatively low stresses. In fact, most structural parts can be considered as springs, even though they are not called springs and do not look like typical springs. Most structural parts are intended to work in the elastic range and return...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
of the material. Point A represents the elastic limit of the spring steel; point B represents that of the structural steel. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 23 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = ηε; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic material More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... structural parts can be considered as springs, because they are intended to function in the elastic, or straight-line, portion of the stress-strain curve, as shown in Fig. 1 . This means that they will return to their original shape and size after an applied load is released. Fig. 1 General stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
..., but with a detail of difference that greatly facilitates the actual processing of the results. Conventional Mechanical Model Elastic materials are conventionally modeled as springs to reflect strain proportionality to stress, and strain restoration when stress is removed. To introduce the characteristic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.t56010019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
... force, sample lengthening, and machine stiffness, and with mechanical properties and parameters such as elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, strength coefficient, strain-hardening exponent, and modulus of resilience. They also cover a wide range of materials including various grades of aluminum and steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... is accelerated by spring force toward the test surface The impact phase, in which the impact body and the sample are in direct contact. In that process, the hard penetrating sphere deforms the sample elastically and plastically and is itself slightly deformed elastically. After the impact body has been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... deformation is by level or degree: elastic (in other words, if the load is removed, deformation is relieved) or plastic (which is permanent deformation). A possible example of an elastic deformation failure is a spring that does not have the correct spring constant. Imagine a coil spring that is supposed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., punch, linkage mechanism, and press frame to deflect elastically. The deflection causes an increasing gap between blank holder and die as it changes the position of BDC of the press. As a result, the BHF, applied by the outer slide, decreases with increasing forming force ( Fig. 13.5 ). In some cases...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Contact of the Punch The punch first touches the fixed sheet. At impact, a compressive stress rapidly builds on the punch and sends a shock wave through it. Elastic and Plastic Deformation The punch penetrates into the sheet, first causing an elastic and then plastic deformation. Shearing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.9781627083843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR of a material is how it deforms or breaks when it is stressed. When a force is applied to a solid material, there are three possible responses. The material may deform elastically which means it will regain its original shape when the force is removed. Springs and rubber bands deform...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... plastic deformation of the material to be tested. However, elastic deformation must be considered in hardness measurement of elastomers. This chapter discusses the equipment and processes involved in the durometer (Shore) test, the International Rubber Hardness Degree test, and other specialized tests...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the spring, as long as the stress is not too high, release of the stress returns the rod to its original length. This is called elastic deformation. However, if the applied stress reaches a critical level, called the yield stress (YS), the metal “gives,” just like in the spring example, and two things...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... not undergo permanent distortion, such as in mechanical springs, is one having a high yield stress and a low modulus of elasticity. For various grades of steel, the modulus of resilience ranges from 100 to 4500 kJ/m 3 (14.5– 650 lbf · in./in. 3 ), with the higher values representing steels with higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the neighboring regions with elastic stresses. Although residual stresses are hard to visualize, difficult to measure, and nearly impossible to calculate, they are just as important in the function of a part as are externally applied forces that are readily visualized, measured, and calculated. An individual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... where f relates to the second-order elastic constant according to (1.7) a C 2 = f where a denotes interatomic spacing. The spring-constant concept applies not only to elastic constants, but to various solid-state phenomena related to lattice vibrations. So, in this approach...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... at failure. Fig. 6.25 Breakaway post Rapid Progressive-Cure Filament-Wound Vehicle Spring The spring shown in Fig. 6.26 replaces one of metal. The advantage is that the filament-wound spring is elastic and returns to shape after many load cycles. The steel spring relaxes during its life...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... pressure supplied by an air cushion. air-hardening steel An alloy steel that will be hardened by cooling in still air from a tem- perature above its critical temperature range. Also called self-hardening steel. air pin See pressure pin. air spring See pneumatic spring. alloy A substance that has metallic...