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Spring steel

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the abnormal lateral force applied here. Another simple demonstration illustrates the effectiveness of proper shape, or configuration, in preventing buckling failure in bending: The “tape” in a metal tape measure is usually made of thin spring steel that is slightly curved. If the tape is held...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... toward the center; in flat parts, such as leaf springs, they initially are perpendicular to the surface. Ratchet marks are formed when several fatigue origins are adjacent to each other; each will start its own fatigue crack propagating, as in Fig. 12 . If the origins are in slightly offset parallel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., Ford took its first shipment of vanadium steel, produced in Canton OH, exclusively for Ford cars. Ford went on to make the famous Model “T,” and every crankshaft was made from vanadium steel. The heat-treated Ford vanadium steel was also used in axles, shafts, springs, and gears. The increased...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... with a recommendation to consider adding spring washers to the assembly. cadmium-plated bolts fractography scanning electron microscopy Summary Background Pertinent Specifications Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Cadmium-plated high-strength steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for specific applications include so-called electrical steels (for magnetic properties), spring steels (for high strength and fatigue resistance), and structural steels (for good combinations of both strength and toughness). Steels can be extruded, drawn, stamped, rolled, welded, and forged into many forms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... tools Hand tools Through Hardening, Tempering Structural members Spring steel Chain links Annealing Aluminum strip Steel strip Seam Welding Oil-country tubular products Refrigeration tubing Line pipe Air Melting of Steels Ingots...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... was attached to the end of a hollow piston inside which a steel spring, a spring seat, and a spring guide were located. Four of the seven springs had suffered abnormal wear at the spring seat end. Six spring seats were available for examination. Three of them contained the impression of the springs on one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... G. , Deformation and Fracture in Martensitic Carbon Steels Tempered at Low Temperatures , Metall. Mater. Trans. B , Vol 32 , 2001 , p 205 – 221 10.1007/s11663-001-0044-4 16. Nam W.J. and Choi H.C. , Effect of Silicon, Nickel and Vanadium on Impact Toughness in Spring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 459 5.7. Weins W.N. and Bleed P. , Why Is the Japanese Sword Curved? , Mater. Res. Soc. , 1991 , p 691 – 701 10.1557/PROC-185-691 Consider the simple example of pulling apart a small spring a fair amount and then releasing it. The spring springs back to its original...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... shaft and beach marks on the piston along with a nick on the opposite side of the barrel. In addition, the metal around the corresponding hole in the rotor had plastically deformed and the slipper pad was gone. Based on the investigation, the failure most likely occurred due to a problem with the spring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... cycling, shock, vibration, and humidity were considered in the development process. If not, the failed item may not have been adequately designed to withstand the environments it experienced. The following examples illustrate the value of design analysis. Springs Whenever the hypothesized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... consisting of springs and sliders is adequate for representing the behavior of most metals, which is extremely fortunate because it greatly simplifies stress-strain analysis. Unfortunately, some important engineering materials do not lend themselves to this simple treatment. Gray cast iron is one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... in. The tube remains in one piece at failure. Fig. 6.25 Breakaway post The spring shown in Fig. 6.26 replaces one of metal. The advantage is that the filament-wound spring is elastic and returns to shape after many load cycles. The steel spring relaxes during its life, and the spring rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., and the 9200 series alloys are used for springs and applications where shock resistance is a factor. In most instances, however, a single composition of steel serves a wide range of applications, for example, the 4340, 8640, and 8740 grades. Many of the standard grades of alloy steels are guaranteed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... steel rod at the center of the nest of springs. This steel rod fractured due to a fatigue crack that was not detected earlier. It resulted in the failure of the brake system, and the miners’ cage could not be stopped from rapid descent and crash. It was obvious that the steel rod at the center...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... Silicon is present in higher levels in the spring steel AISI 9260 and in all cast irons. It causes the bainites in these metals to contain significant amounts of retained austenite, reduced amounts of carbides, and it changes the type of carbide in the lower bainite from Fe 3 C (cementite) to Fe 2.5 C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... only a flange, panel edge, or mounting hole. The spring-tension principle of fastening eliminates loosening by vibration, allows for design flexibility, compensates for tolerance buildup and misalignment, and minimizes assembly damage. The basic material for spring clip fasteners is steel with a carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... in materials because they are internal and are not obvious. However, the concept is greatly simplified if one visualizes tension and compression springs to represent tensile and compressive residual stresses, respectively. This spring analogy was first proposed by Heyn ( Ref 15 ) and vividly illustrated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... type 420 stainless steel hardened to 51 HRC equivalent (1000×). (b) A woody texture, indicative of ductile fracture, through grade 9254 spring steel. Fractures through porosity can be misinterpreted as ductile rupture. Such a case in an aluminum fatigue bar specimen is presented in Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... of mechanical fastening are in the aerospace, automotive, and construction industries. Machine Screws and Bolts Molded-in Threads Self-Threading Screws Rivets Spring-Steel Fasteners Press Fits Snap Fits Solvent bonding and adhesive bonding are assembly processes in which two or more...