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Spalling

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... 2 O 3 is then reviewed. The chapter further discusses the causes and preventive measures of spalling and cracking of oxide scale. It ends with a section providing information on oxidation behaviors under less-oxidizing atmospheres. References References 1. Birks N. , Meier G.H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., surface-origin fatigue, subcase-origin fatigue (spalling fatigue), and cavitation fatigue. abrasive wear adhesive wear cavitation fatigue contact-stress fatigue erosion-corrosion erosive wear fretting wear gouging grinding WEAR IS USUALLY DEFINED as the undesired removal of material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... erosion, and major types of wear, including abrasive, adhesive, lubricated, rolling, and impact wear. It also covers special cases such as galling, fretting, scuffing, and spalling and introduces the concepts of tribocorrosion and biotribology. References References 1. Banks B.A. et al...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the characteristic damage of a mid-air explosion and how it appears in metal debris recovered from crash sites of downed aircraft. It explains that explosive forces produce telltale signs such as petaling, curling, spalling, spikes, reverse slant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Surface pitting Subsurface pitting/spalling Case crushing Location of origin Surface, often at micropits Short distance below surface may be at nonmetallics Probably at case-core interface Appearance Shallow Shallow Deep ridged Initial size Small Small Large Initial area-depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., resulting in spalling that acts as a stress-relief mechanism; in some cases, the protection offered by such scales may be low at this point, as shown in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 Cr 2 O 3 scale formed on pure chromium at 1100 °C (2012 °F). A Pilling-Bedworth ratio of 2.0 results in high compressive stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... conversion downstream. As the highest-temperature component of the exhaust system, the exhaust manifold must possess the greatest resistance to high-temperature oxidation damage. Risk of such damage is due to the intermittent use of vehicles, which causes cyclic oxidation and the ensuing spalling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 2 = k ′ t where X is the oxide scale thickness, t is the exposure time, and k ′ is the parabolic constant; when t = 0, X = 0. When the oxide scale forming on the metal surface provides no protection barrier due to oxide cracking and spalling, volatile oxides, and molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Progression was parallel to surface and inward away from surface. Not etched. Original magnification: 60× The type of damage in conventional bearing steels from contact fatigue involves micropitting, macropitting, and spalling ( Fig. 16.10 ). In hybrid ceramics coatings and overlay coatings, the damage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... pearlite (black) in the ferrite (white); (c) 1080 steel: the microstructure is almost entirely pearlite; (d) hardened 1080 steel: the microstructure is 100% martensite. Fig. 8.6 Railroad track spalling from rolling wear and surface fatigue Fig. 8.7 Three-body abrasion characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Optical micrograph of a cross section of porous chromium plating on a ductile iron substrate. The chromium thickness is approximately 50 μm. Fig. 12.4 Titanium nitride physical vapor deposition coating spall on a cemented carbide tool bit. Original magnification: 1000× Fig. 12.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... coating performance continue to occur in the field. As suggested previously, one of the facts of oxide formation is that the oxide scales on superalloys are subject to spalling, owing to severe thermal stresses induced by the cyclic nature of most heat engine operations. Superalloys rarely operate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Surface-origin fatigue Subcase-origin fatigue (“spalling” fatigue) Cavitation fatigue Subsurface-Origin Fatigue Pitting in hardened steel as a result of subsurface-origin fatigue occurs during essentially pure rolling motion of one element across or around another. This is most common...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... core will generally be separated by a cushion layer of bainite that helps in reducing cracking and spalling. In addition to the hard surface, the surface layer is usually in a state of compression, which improves fatigue cracking resistance. 21.1.1 Flame Hardening 21.1.2 Induction Hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... they oxidize rapidly in air. If the ratio [(MW) oxide /ρ oxide ]/[n(AW) M /ρ M ] is too high, the compressive stresses in the oxide may cause it to spall off. This is the case for Fe 2 O 3 . Another necessary condition for a protective oxide is that it must be solid. Tungsten and molybdenum oxidize very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.9781627082709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... is often foreign to the inherent metal. It is usually brittle and does not adhere well once formed. It is likely to spall off, removing surface metal, further roughening the surface and exposing fresh substrate material to the environment in a vicious spiraling cycle of deterioration. If moisture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of scale formation. It had a parabolic relationship with the time of exposure at elevated temperatures. The higher the temperature and the longer the soaking time, the more the outer layer, which consisted of magnetite and hematite, became porous and susceptible to spalling. The normal steam velocity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... coefficient, and E is the elastic modulus of the material. For biaxial and triaxial constraint, the stresses shall be multiplied by (1 – ν) and (1 – 2ν) respectively, where ν is Poisson’s ratio. These stresses are large and can cause a material to yield, crack, spall, or buckle (Ref 5) . Linear thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... flux field and the heat from radiation. This includes degradation of magnetic particles, degradation of the binders used to hold the particles together, and rusting, arcing, spalling, and other problems. The controllers with kilowatt-second monitoring windows may not pick up degradation of coils...