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Soils (types)

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... systems; oil and gas handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), from produced sulfides Underground pipeline industry Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment industry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... requires an understanding of various field conditions such as soil type, soil pH, stray current effects, and electrical continuity. There are many ways to stop or mitigate corrosion. A few common examples are described. In the case of galvanic corrosion between two metals, there are some obvious...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... type Hazardous liquid transmission Natural gas transmission Natural gas distribution Total accidents due to corrosion (1994–1999) 271 114 26 Total accidents (1994–1999) 1116 448 708 Total accidents due to corrosion, % 24.3 25.4 3.7 Corrosion accidents due to external...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., to minimize disposal and soil pollution problems. Biodegradation Mechanisms Plastics remain relatively immune to microbial attack as long as their molecular weight remains high. A review of the biodegradability of plastics or lack thereof has been conducted ( Ref 1 ). Many plastics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... include protection from soil corrosion (e.g., underground pipelines) and marine corrosion (pipelines, ship hulls, and offshore drilling platforms). Frequently, cathodic protection is used in conjunction with organic coatings. How Cathodic Protection Works Types of Cathodic Protection Anode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of cathodic protection. It begins by discussing the fundamentals of cathodic protection followed by a description of the various types of cathodic protection. It then describes the origins, types, and alleged failures of cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., or a substance adsorbed on or absorbed in another substance. All structural metals corrode to some extent in natural environments (e.g., the atmosphere, soil, or waters). Bronze, brass, most stainless steels, zinc, and pure aluminum corrode so slowly in service conditions that long service life is expected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses three related corrosion mechanisms, galvanic, deposition, and stray-current corrosion, explaining why they occur and how they affect the corrosion process. It includes information on testing and prevention methods along with examples of the type...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment Heat exchangers and piping Sewage handling and treatment Concrete and reinforced-concrete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... or density of the erodent as control variables. E ∼ m xv n erosion ~ mass of eroding substance (m) × velocity of impingement (v) The classic example of liquid erosion is the removal of soil from banks abutting a flowing stream ( Fig. 4.2 ). This same type of erosion occurs on every...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the purposes of corrosion tests, the logical steps in a test program, and the preparation and cleaning of test specimens. The focus then moves on to discuss the types and applications of these test categories and the associated evaluation procedures. Excluding electrochemical tests which are addressed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., partially immersed in flowing seawater at Kure Beach, NC Alloy and temper Type of joint Exposure period, years Maximum depth of attack, mils Change in tensile strength due to corrosion (a) , % Plate Rivet or weld Outside surface Faying surface Continuously immersed 6053-T6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., Test Method for Coulometric Reduction of Surface Films on Metallic Test Samples • B 826, Test Method for Monitoring Atmospheric Corrosion Tests by Electrical Resistance Probes • C 692, Method of Evaluating the Influence of Wicking-Type Thermal Insulations on the Stress Corrosion Cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Bath Descaling Background Surface Finishes by Chemical (Electrochemical) Means Surface Finishes by Mechanical Means Comments Cleaning is required to remove contaminants from the surfaces of parts made of superalloys. Shop soils such as oil, grease, and cutting fluids can be removed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter first covers some basic principles of electrochemical corrosion and then some of the various types of corrosion. Some of the more common types of corrosion discussed include uniform corrosion, galvanic corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, erosion-corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...) Cadmium Aluminum alloys 2117, 2017, 2024 (in this order) Low-carbon steel Wrought iron Cast iron Ni-Resist (high-nickel cast iron) Type 410 stainless steel (active) 50-50 lead-tin solder Type 304 stainless steel (active) Type 316 stainless steel (active) Lead Tin Copper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...-stress side is continually exposed at the sharp tip. Eventually, of course, the part must be replaced, but service life may be very long in certain types of soil, particularly those without rocks. Fig. 7 Self-sharpening of a digging tooth from ground-contact equipment by controlled wear through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is to review the corrosion behavior of the major classes of metals and alloys as well as some nonmetallic materials, describe typical corrosion applications, and present some unique weaknesses of various types of materials. It also aims to point out some unique material characteristics that may be important...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... 19.4.3 Ladle Metallurgy 19.4.4 Residual Elements and Cleanliness 19.4.5 Ingot Casting 19.4.6 Continuous Casting Semifinished blooms, billets, and slabs are transported from the steelmaking plant to the rolling mills. Steel products are classified into two basic types according...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in an austenitic stainless steel (0.1% C, 1% Si, 2% Mn, 18% Cr, 10% Ni, 2% Mo, 0.6% Ti) caused by MgCl 2 solution at approximately 100 °C (212 °F). Transgranular rupture reveals feathery pattern. Original magnification: 5500×. Source: Ref 18.7 Fig. 18.4 Intergranular fracture of type 304 austenitic...