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Softening

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Annealing, a heat treatment process, is used to soften metals that have been hardened by cold working. This chapter discusses the following three distinct processes that can occur during annealing: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The types of processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. These metals are considered refractory because of their high melting points, high-temperature mechanical stability, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... strain hardening and softening, both of which lead to premature failure. It then discusses the stages of fatigue fracture, using detailed images to show how cracks initiate and grow and how they leave telltale marks on fracture surfaces. It goes on to describe fatigue life assessment methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... or soften with continued strain reversals. It compares and contrasts the response patterns of such materials, explaining how the movement of dispersed particles and dislocations influences their behavior. It then examines the behavior of materials under uniaxial strain reversals of varying amplitude...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...: Ref 12.2 Fig. 12.4 Initial hysteresis loop for polycarbonate at room temperature ( F = 0.1 Hz triangular waveform, giving a strain rate of 1.6 × 10 –2 sec –1 for a strain range of 0.080). Source: Ref 12.2 Fig. 12.5 Softening patterns for various polymers tested under strain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... loading. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 16 Cyclic hardening and cyclic softening. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 17 (a) Stress versus log cycles to failure curve. (b) Log stress versus log cycles to failure curve. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 18 Stress versus log cycles to failure curves for bending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., previous treatment rolled and softened 650 °C 1 h Fig. A11.11 1¾ Si Mn, analysis wt%, austenitized at 910 °C, previous treatment rolled Fig. A11.12 3½ Si Cr, analysis wt%, austenitized at 1050 °C, previous treatment rolled and softened 650 °C 1 h Fig. A11.13 2 Si Cr Mo, analysis wt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to have a continual source of incoming water. This incoming water is termed make-up water. It is raw water that is pretreated through processes such as demineralization or softening for its subsequent use for steam generation. 7.1.2 Condensate Water In a typical thermal power plant, low-pressure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... micrograph. Courtesy of Thomas Swarr, while at Lehigh University In addition to increasing hardenability, certain alloying elements also help to retard the rate of softening during tempering. The most effective elements in this regard are strong carbide formers such as chromium, molybdenum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... advantageous to relieve this stress whenever the tool is redressed, by retempering at an appropriate temperature. This should not exceed the tempering temperature of the steel, which would cause undesirable softening of the tool. Stress relieving is most commonly performed in air or atmosphere furnaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... produced by carbonitriding of steel at 850 °C (1560 °F), where carbon predominates in the formation of a martensitic layer. Source: Ref 1 The nitrogen in the carbonitrided case also increases the resistance of steel to softening at slightly elevated temperatures. The greater the nitrogen content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... resistance, toughness, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. Thus, there is a fairly wide variety of different tool steels for different applications ( Fig. 22.1 ). Fig. 22.1 Comparison of tool steel properties Most tool steels are wrought products that are generally melted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
.... Alloys with limited deformability show more complex deformation and softening behavior, which restricts successful bonding. Brittle materials usually fail under the impact. For one special agglomerate of submicron particles, layer formation by high-pressure cold spraying has been reported ( Ref 2.36...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. Consequently, the selection of the proper tool material for a given application often requires a tradeoff to achieve the optimum combination of properties. Most tool steels are wrought products, but powder metallurgy (P/M) processing, where gas-atomized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... X. , Liao H. , Guo Z. , Li W. , and Coddet C. , Deposition Behavior of Thermally Softened Copper Particles in Cold Spraying , Acta Mater. , Vol 61 ( No. 14 ), 2013 , p 5105 – 5118 10.1016/j.actamat.2013.04.041 3.40 Wang F.F. , Li W.Y. , Yu M...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... strengths are approximately 20 times the radial tensile strengths. The orientation dependence of properties can be largely circumvented by the use of plywood, composed of plies oriented with their grain at 90° to one another. The plies are cut from rotating logs that have been softened with moisture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... condition of the metal. The metal can either undergo cyclic strain hardening, cyclic strain softening, or remain stable. Cyclic strain hardening and softening are illustrated schematically in Fig. 14.11 . In both cases, the hysteresis loops change with successive cycles. Cyclic hardening leads...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., tan delta Mechanical properties, phase transitions, damping, softening cross linking Thermal-mechanical analysis (TMA) Penetration temperature, expansion coefficient Phase changes, T g , T m , dimensional stability, modulus, compliance, deflection temperature under load, Vicat temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... or molybdenum or both. These elements induce deep hardening characteristics and resistance to abrasion and softening. Generally, these steels are hardened by quenching in air or molten salt baths. The chromium-base steels contain 5% Cr. ( Table 21.4 ). High molybdenum content gives these steels high resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the transformation range and cooling slowly. The purpose is to soften the metal for further cold working. Process annealing and subcritical annealing are often synonymous. Recrystallization annealing Used to produce a new grain structure in cold-worked steel without a phase change. It is often referred...