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Sodium hydroxide, environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... chlorides, molten nitrates, molten fluorides, molten carbonates, and molten sodium hydroxide. molten salt corrosion 15.1 Introduction Molten salt technology plays an important role in various industries. In the heat treating industry, molten salts are commonly used as a medium for heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... typically have neutral pH values. Sodium bicarbonate and ammonium hydroxide are mildly alkaline solutions and have a pH of approximately 10. Sodium hydroxide is a strongly alkaline solution and has high pH values. Fig. 15 The pH of several common environments The approximate pH of solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... carbonate • Potassium chloride • • • • • Potassium chromate • Potassium hydroxide • • • • Potassium permanganate • Silver nitrate • Sodium aluminate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to overheating. 7.2.6 Sodium Sodium exists in water in its ionic form as Na + ions. Sodium ions combine with hydroxide ions to form sodium hydroxide (i.e., caustic soda). Sodium hydroxide attacks the highly stressed areas of boiler tubes and steam turbines, leading to stress-corrosion cracking failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... hydroxide 5–10 21 (70) 0.001 10 Boiling 0.021 28 Room 0.003 40 80 (176) 0.127 50 57 (135) 0.013 50 Boiling 0.051 73 129 (264) 0.178 50–73 188 (370) =1.09 50 38 (100) 0.023 Sodium hypochlorite 6 Room Nil Sodium hypochlorite + 15% NaCl + 1%NaOH 1.5–4 66–93...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... The damage occurs especially in the presence of heavy scale deposits on the water side and in high-heat-flux areas as well as on the ID surfaces of slanted or horizontal tubes. Below the scale deposits, the local concentration of sodium hydroxide is high enough to remove the protective magnetite film per...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., concentrated sodium and potassium hydroxide. In addition, hydrogen embrittlement can accompany this attack, leading to unexpected brittle fracture. Corrosion rates for several alkaline environments are shown in Table 14.11 . Corrosion of unalloyed titanium in alkaline solutions Table 14.11 Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... It is unstable and is obtained only when the solution is under carbon dioxide pressure. Beryllium oxide carbonate is precipitated when sodium carbonate is added to a beryllium salt solution, with carbon dioxide being evolved. The precipitate appears to be a mixture of beryllium hydroxide and the normal carbonate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... protective. For an oxide to be protective, it must cover the surface. Hence, volume of oxide ≥ volume of metal oxidized. If nM + mO → ρM n O m , protection occurs if: ( MW ) oxide / ρ oxide ≥ n ( AW ) M / ρ M The equation is not satisfied for sodium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... 1282 186 >2600 6534 651 Source: Ref 2.52 2.3.6 Hydroxides Stress-corrosion cracking of steels due to sodium hydroxide, generally called “caustic cracking” or “embrittlement,” has been a phenomenon most commonly associated with steam boilers. Recent SCC problems with continuous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... acids … Alkaline oxidizing 60–120 95–105 205–220 Potassium permanganate 5 wt% Sodium hydroxide 20 wt% Water bal Pickling cycle Acid pickling 5–30 49–60 120–140 Hydrofluoric acid 4 wt% Procedure for removing scale from Inconel alloys, many of which may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the crude oil is heated. Calcium and magnesium chloride hydrolyze more easily than sodium chloride. Removal of salts and other undesirable contaminants such as solids is usually aided by a small amount of a desalting additive injected into the raw crude charge. Caustic, a dilute sodium hydroxide solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of research on the effects of pH on SCC of copper-base alloys has been performed in nonammoniacal environments. Shih et al. ( Ref 7.5 ) investigated the SCC of aluminum bronze in sodium fluoride solutions with pHs of 8, 10, and 12 and found the most severe cracking at pH 8. Torchio ( Ref 7.25 ) and Torchio...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... ferritic stainless steels are highly resistant to SCC in boiling magnesium chloride and sodium chloride solutions. Hence, a misleading impression had emerged that all ferritic stainless steels are immune to all chloride environments. As shown subsequently, there is no immunity associated with the body...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...; to strong alkalis, represented by sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide at pH 14. Fig. 1 The pH of several common environments The measured pH of several common acids and alkalis are as follows: Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are strong acids and have low pH values. Boric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... such as sulfates and nitrates, or chlorides present in the air, particularly in coastal areas. Fire-side SCC of austenitic stainless steel tubes is attributed to the presence of chlorides and sulfur-containing compounds, whereas that of carbon and low-alloy steels is normally due to concentrated sodium hydroxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., such as boric acid. The figure also shows the neutral solutions, such as milk, through mildly alkaline solutions, such as sodium bicarbonate and borax, and the more highly alkaline solutions, such as sodium hydroxide. The approximate locations of several common environments on the potential-pH diagrams...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... caustic. A strongly alkaline substance. Also, a hydroxide of a light metal, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. caustic embrittlement. An obsolete historical term denoting a form of stress-corrosion cracking most frequently encountered in carbon steels or iron-chromium-nickel alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility of high-strength alloys to SCC in 3.5% sodium chloride G 64 Classification of the Resistance of Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloys Alphabetical rankings (A through D) of the relative...