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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... components and the associated causes. It discusses the erosive effect of blowing soot, steam, and fly ash as well as coal particle impingement and falling slag. It also includes several case studies. References References 6.38 Wagner C. , Defending Boiler Components Against Corrosive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... White Spots Solidification White Spots ESR Furnace Electroslag Remelting Furnace Operation Electroslag Remelting Control Slag Choices Electroslag Remelting Pool Details Introduction Positive Segregation Electroslag Remelting Ingot Surface Background Triple Melt Ingot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... with the purifying agent, oxygen, than does carbon. Thus, early stainless steel making, done in an arc furnace, was a lengthy process that necessarily involved high chromium losses to the slag as carbon was removed. This process was not only very expensive, the carbon levels that could be achieved were not much...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... are such that a large part of the phosphorus in the iron ore and the sulfur from the coke and coals is incorporated in the liquid metal, pig iron. Several other impurities are collected in a slag with a chemical composition properly adjusted by careful additions. Depending on the operating conditions of the blast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., or undesirable changes in cross section. Discontinuities resulting from the welding process include: Undercut: A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal Slag inclusions: Nonmetallic solid materials entrapped in the weld metal or between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... metal can be supplied by a separate rod or wire if needed. A consumable electrode, however, will not only conduct the current that sustains the arc but also melt and supply filler metal to the joint. Arc welding processes use shielding gases, slag coverings, or both to protect the hot weld metal from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... , Steel Founders Society of America 20. Sankaranarayanan R. and Guthrie R. , Slag Entrainment through a “Funnel” Vortex during Ladle Teeming Operations , Proceedings of the International Symposium on Developments in Ladle Steelmaking and Continuous Casting , Aug 1990 ( Ontario...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... is tapped into a ladle where further composition adjustments are made. During tapping, small quantities of other metals and fluxes are often added to control the state of oxidation and to meet requirements for particular grades of steel. Finally, the vessel is turned upside down to remove the remaining slag...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... but was instead formed in a solid state as stone and slagged off, leaving a mass of iron particles at the bottom of the pit. This iron was essentially carbon-free because it never reached a temperature in which carbon could be absorbed. With time, special fire pits were built to increase the amount of iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by avoiding unnecessary repairs of harmless weld discontinuities. The commonly encountered inclusions, as well as cracking, the most serious of weld defects, are discussed in this section. 5.6.1 Gas Porosity 5.6.2 Slag Inclusions 5.6.3 Tungsten Inclusions 5.6.4 Lack of Fusion and Lack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) for 1000 h. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 10.5 Temperature gradients through the inner oxide scale, tube wall, outer oxide scale, and ash/slag deposits. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 10.3 Bubbling fluidized-bed boiler. Source: Ref 1 . Courtesy of Babcock & Wilcox Fig. 10.91 Tube wall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... showing locations of slag inclusions in weld metal. (a) Near the surface and in the root of a single-pass weld. (b) Between weld beads in a multipass weld. (c) At the side of a weld near the root. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 11 Redesign of a casting to eliminate hot tears. Mold restraint coupled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... to what happens at a somewhat higher temperature in conventional stainless steel technology. During refining (oxygen blowing), silicon becomes oxidized and enters the oxide slag phase of the slag/steel equilibrium, whereas chromium predominantly remains unoxidized in the steel phase. Any chromium that has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is reported to be only partial because stable NaF-BeF 2 is formed, and it cannot be reduced by an excess of sodium [ Kroll 1945 ]. Reduction of beryllium fluoride with calcium is accompanied by the evolution of a large amount of heat, which melts the metal and slag, but the cost of calcium is excessive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperatures. Early steel alloys were produced by solid-state smelting that produced iron with a low carbon content and high density of entrapped slag inclusions. Heavy hammering or forging was used to fragment and disperse the inclusions. In approximately 350 B.C. , wootz steel was produced in India...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Welding sequence Moisture contamination Organic or inorganic chemical species Oxide film and scale Weld slag and spatter Incomplete weld penetration or fusion Porosity Cracks (crevices) High residual stresses Improper choice of filler metal Final surface finish...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... under residual slag (S) in IN-135 weld metal after bleach plant exposure. Etched with glycergia. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 11 Microfissure corrosion on IN-135 weld metal on an alloy 904L test coupon after bleach plant exposure. See also Fig. 12 . Source: Ref 5 Fig. 12 Section from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
.... Improvements include water cooling, preheated air blasts, oxygen enrichment, coke injection, the use of basic linings, and computer control. Cupolas may be operated either continuously or intermittently. In continuous operation, the iron and slag formed in the melting operation flow from a tap hole...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...Maximum solubility of slag-forming elements in δ-iron (ferrite) and γ-iron (austenite) Table 10.5 Maximum solubility of slag-forming elements in δ-iron (ferrite) and γ-iron (austenite) Element Solubility in ferrite, wt% Solubility in austenite, wt% Ca 0.024 0.016 Si 10.9 1.9...