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Shrinkage pipe

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... at the crucible wall in Fig. 15.1 is due to shrinkage volume. When the final liquid freezes along the centerline of the ingot, one would expect to observe a shrinkage pipe going down the centerline, as is familiar to anyone who has cast little lead soldiers. Suppose the walls of the crucible were slanted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...,” in this book; this contraction or shrinkage is largely counteracted by the formation of graphite, which has low density.) This change of volume may induce the formation of different shrinkage defects, such as porosity and pipe, and may contribute to liquid movement during solidification. These movements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to the forging operation. Some, but again by no means all, of the service problems that occur with forgings can be traced to imperfections originating in the ingot. Chemical Segregation Ingot Pipe and Centerline Shrinkage High Hydrogen Content Nonmetallic Inclusions Unmelted Electrodes and Shelf...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... shrinkage void is filled by the collapse of surrounding solidified metal. Shrinkage may assume many forms. Distributed voids or microshrinkage are found between dendrite arms as a result of failure during the last stages of interdendritic feeding. Centerline or piping voids result from gross directional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to be the most effective technique. Shear-wave ultrasonic (SWU) inspection has also been used for piping, but it does not always distinguish SCC and other defect indications, such as shrinkage cracks, slag inclusions, lack of fusion, or fatigue cracks. Nevertheless, SWU is considered helpful, because these other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... machine. One filament winding machine made 2 to 3 in. (50 to 75 mm) diameter pipe in 20 ft (6 m) lengths at a 54.75° fiber angle ( Fig. 6.3 ). The rotating platforms followed each other from the bottom to the top and back to the bottom. The platforms rotating in opposite directions provided...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... porosity, and porosity in blended-elemental powder compacts. Porosity in the pipe sections, resulting from metal shrinkage and volatile constituents, can be largely avoided by good hot-topping practices. Segregation of alloying elements during solidification is affected by several factors, including...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Common types of weld discontinuities illustrated in <xref ref-type="fig" rid="t51130503-f1">Fig. 1</xref> Table 1 Common types of weld discontinuities illustrated in Fig. 1 No. Discontinuity Location (a) 1 Porosity (b) W  Cluster(1b in Fig. 1 )  Piping(1d in Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... and reinforcements affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Details and design considerations for injection molding include shrinkage, postmold shrinkage, and size and location of holes and other features. Shrinkage Shrinkage occurs because the plastic melt volume is greater than the solid volume, and the plastic melt is packed into the mold under high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... sandblasting to remove oxides and scale appears to be the most effective technique. Shear-wave ultrasonic (SWU) inspection has also been used for piping, but it does not always distinguish SCC and other defect indications, such as shrinkage cracks, slag inclusions, lack of fusion, or fatigue cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... typical pipe and porosity. When the ingots are rolled into bars, these flaws become elongated throughout the center of the bars. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 4 (a) Longitudinal section through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage. (b) 1038 steel bar, as-forged. Longitudinal section displays...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low-alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting. Original magnification: 200×. Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... segregation at cell boundaries can be sufficiently high to produce shrinkage, carbides, and unstable austenite. These microstructural defects and inhomogeneities decrease machinability and reduce mechanical properties. To improve properties and reduce the sensitivity of ADI to section size and nodule count...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... required to make composite brazing foils of the form shown in Fig. 4.1 . Fig. 4.3 Bow distortion of a bimetallic strip Fig. 4.43 Schematic illustrations showing the corrosion of butt joints between copper pipes conveying tap water. (a) Ag-Cu-Zn braze. (b) Ag-Cu-P braze Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for synthetic (acrylic) fibers because its rodlike molecules form highly crystalline bundles and the high degree of hydrogen bonding provides high mechanical, thermal, and chemical resistance. With its low cost and relatively high modulus, PVC is used for water and gas pipes, window frames, siding, gutters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure of stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor (BWR) service. It explains where most of the failures have occurred and provides relevant details about the materials of construction, fabrication...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... Using controlled process conditions at a shop, one could produce a high-integrity transition piece using one of the solid-state welding processes. The selection of the appropriate solid-state welding process would depend on joint (part) geometry. A transition joint between a plate and a pipe is best...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Typical defects associated with VIM include shrinkage pipe, gas porosity, microcracks, centerline defects, cold shuts, inclusions, and macrosegregation of metallic impurities. They point out that enhancing unidirectional solidification, as was reported for both arc melting and electron beam melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... pipes at different stresses and temperatures. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 14 Typical load-displacement curve for a ductile polymer tested in uniaxial tension Fig. 15 Crack formation from a craze Fig. 16 Shrinkage void on field fracture surface of polycarbonate. 12× Fig...