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Shrinkage

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of solidification rate on secondary dendrite arm spacing, and the factors that contribute to porosity and shrinkage. References References B.1 Campbell J. , Castings , Butterworth Heinemann , 1991 B.2 Campbell F.C. , Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys , ASM International...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...Abstract Abstract Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination of these effects. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., gravity, micro, and inverse. The chapter also provides information on grain refinement and secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity and shrinkage in castings. It concludes with a brief overview of six of the most important casting processes in industries: sand casting, plaster mold casting, evaporative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... describes the morphology of the (alpha-Al + Si) eutectic, which can be lamellar or rodlike in shape, and explains how it can be modified through temperature control or alloy additions to improve properties such as tensile strength and plasticity and reduce shrinkage. References References 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... root revealed by the penetrating liquid technique. Detail of the central region with higher magnification showing the machining imprints. The arrows show the extreme limits of the cracks. Fig. 21 (a) Micrograph showing cracks connecting shrinkage pores (indicated by arrows) in the internal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the tooling used for autoclave curing, one of the most common composite fabrication processes. The discussion covers curing practices, material selection factors, and design challenges associated with thermal expansion, tool shrinkage, part complexity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... be classified in different ways. One way is to consider them either as dimensional distortion (growth or shrinkage) or as shape distortion (such as bending, twisting, or buckling). They may also be classified as being either temporary or permanent in nature. This chapter discusses the nature, causes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... shrinkage. cardboard dimensional changes wood WOOD IS ONE OF THE FIRST MATERIALS used by man. Trees often are described as being either coniferous (cone bearing) or deciduous (losing leaves in the winter.) However, these descriptions are not mutually exclusive. Larch trees are both deciduous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the design, configuration, and function of tooling and dies used to extrude aluminum alloys. It discuses basic design considerations, including the geometry, location, and orientation of die openings; allowances for thermal shrinkage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...Abstract Abstract After shaping and first-stage binder removal, the component (with remaining backbone binder) is heated to the sintering temperature. Further heating induces densification, evident as dimensional shrinkage, pore rounding, and improved strength. This chapter begins...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... and reinforcements affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... continuous casting hot cracking ingot casting macrosegregation microporosity nonmetallic inclusions solidification shrinkage steel Modern steelmaking and refining processes are capable of producing large masses of highly homogeneous steel, both chemically and thermally. However, these liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Details and design considerations for injection molding include shrinkage, postmold shrinkage, and size and location of holes and other features. Shrinkage Shrinkage occurs because the plastic melt volume is greater than the solid volume, and the plastic melt is packed into the mold under high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... mixtures as well as isotropic shrinkage and high fill density, while slightly irregular powders are less prone to slumping during debinding and early stages of sintering. Slightly irregular powders also provide the so-called brown strength or the compact strength subsequent to debinding, which is desirable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low-alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting. Original magnification: 200×. Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
..., and microgears (for computer memory devices). Selection of a material depends not only on its properties, but also on the manufacturing methods used, part shape and size, molding or machining characteristics, shrinkage rates, moisture absorption, and processing variables. Material suppliers and/or processors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... influence the properties of the plastic part. Shrinkage, warpage, density, strength, toughness, and many other properties are affected by processing. Also, the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the temperature and shear history of the material. Because end-use properties are affected by so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... ksi). Source: Chartier et al. ( Ref 20 , 21 ) Fig. 10.36 Data for surface area loss and sintering shrinkage during constant rate heating (5 °C/min, or 9 °F/min). If sintering were only by surface diffusion, then there would be no shrinkage while surface area is eliminated. On the other hand...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... and permanent mold castings. It has proved capable of substantially eliminating microporosity resulting from the precipitation of hydrogen and the formation of internal shrinkage during solidification. The process has no effect on cracks, shrinkage, and other defects that communicate to the casting surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to the forging operation. Some, but again by no means all, of the service problems that occur with forgings can be traced to imperfections originating in the ingot. Chemical Segregation Ingot Pipe and Centerline Shrinkage High Hydrogen Content Nonmetallic Inclusions Unmelted Electrodes and Shelf...