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Shock loading

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Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 6.12 (Part 2) (e) 0.04% C, annealed (0.04C, wt%). Subjected to explosive shock loading. Picral 1000×. (f) to (h) 0.1% C, normalized (0.09C-0.01Si-0.45Mn. Necked region of tensile testpiece. (f) Picral (comparatively heavy etch). 2000×. (g) Scanning electron micrograph. Picral More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.8 Twins produced inside ferrite grains by shock loading the material at high impact velocities. (Neumann lines; Ref 4 ) in a very low carbon steel. Etchant: nital. Neumann lines are named after the German scientist Franz Ernst Neumann (1798–1895), who observed these twins More
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 17 Steel bar with crack in unexpected position. Originally shock loaded in compression. Threaded portion diameter is approximately 2 cm. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... are not subjected to high shock loads or contact stress. It is useful for gears that need to maintain their surface hardness at elevated temperatures. Gears used in industrial, automotive, and aerospace applications are commonly nitrided. This chapter discusses the processes involved in gas, controlled, and ion...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
. 4000×. (c) and (d) 1.4% C, partly spheroidized (1.46C-0.14Si-0.33Mn, wt%). Necked region of tensile testpiece. (c) 2% nital. 2000×. (d) Scanning electron micrograph. 2% nital. 5000×. (e) 0.04% C, annealed (0.04C, wt%). Subjected to explosive shock loading. Picral 1000×. (f) to (h) 0.1% C More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... steady and overload conditions. Nitrided gears, on the other hand, seem to perform well only under steady load. Shock loads detrimentally affect the life of nitrided gears. Thus, nitrided gears are rarely used in applications that experience occasional shock loads. However, that the life of nitrided...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract Tube hydroforming is a material-forming process that uses pressurized fluid to plastically deform tubular materials into desired shapes. It is widely used in the automotive industry for making exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, shock absorber housings, and other parts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
.... and Bless S.J. , Strain Rate Effects on Ultimate Strain of Copper , in Shock Waves in Condensed Matter , North Holland , Amsterdam , 1983 8. Fowles G.R. , Experimental Technique and Instrumentation , in Dynamic Response of Materials to Intense Impulse Loading , Chou P.C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... . Each of these trucks provides friction control of the load spring action that permits the use of softer, long-travel springs. This combination of friction, snubbing, and soft springs protects the car body from shocks. Though details may differ, friction is applied through hardened cast steel shoes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
.... Because tempering a carbonitrided case at 425 °C (795 °F) and above results in a marked increase in notch toughness (see Table 1 ), parts that are to be subjected to repeated shock loading are invariably tempered to avoid impact and impact fatigue failures. Most carbonitrided gears are tempered at 190...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., staggering punches would minimize the reverse load. Punch stagger is explained in an earlier section. Nitrogen cylinder cushions can be built to absorb the shock energy during snap-thru. However, this would require additional forward tonnage equivalent to the cushion capacity. Hydraulic shock dampers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... conditioning technology and the automotive sector as well as aerospace applications. The technology allows fabricating complex parts with small corner radii and reduced springback effects ( Ref 11.20 ). Due to loading by the shock wave, wrinkling is prevented during the drawing of conical workpieces. Examples...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Wear resistance: The abrasion resistance of a tool often determines its useful life. Shock resistance: In many operations, tools are loaded rapidly and must therefore be capable of sustaining stresses created during both mechanical and thermal shock loading. Toughness is a measure of the ability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... are markedly influenced by strain-rate sensitivity (and, therefore, the crystal structure) and the ability to absorb the energy of the shock loading without macroscopic deformation (which is related to the stacking fault energy). In multiphase alloys, the volume fraction, size, and dispersion of a second phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... a 4340 steel with %C increased from 0.4 to 0.7. S Steels The “S” stands for shock resistance. The high toughness needed for shock load resistance is obtained by reducing the %C in these steels to low levels, which also results in the low wear resistance and hot hardness of the S steels. O Steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., such as H19 and H21, have less ductility than medium-alloy hot work steels such as H11. This explains why H19 and H21 have lower toughness than that of H11. Fracture toughness and resistance to shock loading are often measured by a notched-bar Charpy test. This test measures the amount of energy absorbed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The shock-resisting tool steels, designated as group S steels in the AISI classification system, have been developed to produce good combinations of high hardness, high strength, and high toughness or impact fracture resistance. This chapter describes the alloying effects of silicon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... scales of observations (1× to >10,000×) are briefly summarized in Table 6 . In this example, a mixed-mode failure (ductile plus brittle fracture) is described. The pinion failed by tooth-bending fatigue. Some mechanical misalignment of the pinion with the mating gear caused a cyclic shock load...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... The strain-life diagram is used to assess fatigue life that corresponds to the strain obtained by the finite element analysis. 5.4.4.4. Impact Analysis Sudden shock loads can create very high stresses in a very short time ( Ref 7 ), for example: An automotive wheel passing over a pothole...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... be subjected to significant shock loading. It has been suggested that fatigue strength can be related to impact strength; however, results of tests to support this suggestion have been mixed. Single overload tests are used to investigate the ultimate strength of gear materials. The results are useful...