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Shells (structural forms)

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together in crystalline structure by the cloud of these free electrons in what is known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... and explains how to avoid them. casting applications investment casting superalloys Introduction What Is Investment Casting? In investment casting, a ceramic slurry is applied around a disposable pattern, usually wax, and allowed to harden to form a disposable casting mold (shell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... with a primary precipitated solid phase. The α grains are then surrounded by a shell of the β phase. In the peritectic concentration point a peritectoid structure forms that appears similar in micrographs to the eutectoid. The development of the equilibrium state on further cooling is very restricted and can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., a symmetrical ion is produced when a valence electron is removed from the metal atom. As a result of this ion symmetry, metals tend to form highly symmetrical, close-packed crystal structures. They also have a large number of nearest-neighboring atoms (usually 8 to 12), which helps to explain their high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Oxygen atoms are shared by two tetrahedra as sketched in Fig. 1.11 . Fig. 1.11 Structure of a silicate glass consists of tetrahedra with silicon atoms in the centers and oxygen atoms on the corners. Source: Ref 1.2 Exercises Forming hexagonal close packed and face-centered cubic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of valence electrons that an atom has strongly determines how it interacts with adjacent atoms to form the bonds that exist in solids. And as atoms bond to create a solid crystalline structure, the chemical and physical properties of that material are determined to a large extent by the type of bonding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... and the contraction that takes place after solidification as a result of solid-state contraction that most concerns die design and patternmaking. A sphere of molten metal solidifying without risering is an easily understood example of the diverse ways in which shrinkage forms. Once the shell of the sphere has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... of clay and water added to the sand for bonding the sand particles. The sand molds are compacted into matching top and bottom flasks (or mold boxes) using a mulled mixture of silica sand, clay (bentonite), and water. The top (cope) and bottom (drag) molds are formed using wood, plastic, or aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... on the waterwall tubes of supercritical coal-fired boilers fired under low NOx combustion conditions, conducive to the production of sulfidizing environments. In the other case, stress contributes to brittle fracture in the form of intergranular cracking. The phenomenon, which is known by various names, typically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... are also required for both cores and molds produced by the shell process. Wax Patterns Wax patterns are used in the investment, or lost wax, molding process. These processes use dies to form the patterns. The wax patterns are coated with a ceramic slurry to form a shell. The wax is then removed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... that helps in preventing thermal fatigue failures. An extension of the DS process was the development of the single-crystal process in which a single crystal grows to form the entire blade. To develop a DS structure, it is necessary for the dendrites (grains) to grow from one end of the casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... process until the preset discard length is reached. A shell that adheres to the container wall is formed between the dummy block and the container wall. At the end of the extrusion process the stem is withdrawn. The container is then opened far enough to allow the section to be sawn and a discard tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.9781627082808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... to improve the mechanical properties is practically impossible for wrought magnesium alloys because of their limited cold workability associated with their hexagonal lattice structure. Drawing in the form of a calibration draw is, however, of interest, as a means of improving tolerances. Extrusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... used to toughen fiber-reinforced composites are core-shell particles with a shell that is compatible and may also be reactive with the matrix, and a cross-linked rubber or thermoplastic core that does not dissolve. The size of the core-shell particles is usually smaller than the phases formed from RLP...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... if the shell thickness, as resulting from the winding process, is at least equal to the thickness distribution demanded by Eq 3.24 for every Y belonging to the interval [1, Y ]. Obviously, at the equator, the “structural” thickness is the same or a bit less than the “winding” thickness; this has formed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... sand into a box-like heated structure so that a shell of controlled thickness is created. Datum Plane . . . In layout and machining operations, the reference plane from which dimensions are measured in the perpendicular direction. Datum Points . . . In layout and machining operations, the reference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Application : production of large quantities of complex structural shapes from sheet; channels, gutters, welded pipes, and tubing. Fig. 2.7 Roll forming (contour roll forming). Source: Ref 2.4 Roll Bending Roll bending gives a curvature to a sheet, bar or shaped section by bending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...-production process. 3.4.3 Shell Mold Casting In shell mold casting, molten metal is poured into a shell of resin-bonded sand only 0.4 to 0.8 in. (10 to 20 mm) thick. The mold is formed by introducing the chemically coated sand to a heated pattern that thermally cures the bond. By controlling the core...