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Shells (structural forms)

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to have originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together in crystalline structure by the cloud of these free electrons in what...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... and explains how to avoid them. casting applications investment casting superalloys Introduction What Is Investment Casting? In investment casting, a ceramic slurry is applied around a disposable pattern, usually wax, and allowed to harden to form a disposable casting mold (shell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... with a primary precipitated solid phase. The α grains are then surrounded by a shell of the β phase. In the peritectic concentration point a peritectoid structure forms that appears similar in micrographs to the eutectoid. The development of the equilibrium state on further cooling is very restricted and can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., a symmetrical ion is produced when a valence electron is removed from the metal atom. As a result of this ion symmetry, metals tend to form highly symmetrical, close-packed crystal structures. They also have a large number of nearest-neighboring atoms (usually 8 to 12), which helps to explain their high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Oxygen atoms are shared by two tetrahedra as sketched in Fig. 1.11 . Fig. 1.11 Structure of a silicate glass consists of tetrahedra with silicon atoms in the centers and oxygen atoms on the corners. Source: Ref 1.2 Exercises Forming hexagonal close packed and face-centered cubic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of valence electrons that an atom has strongly determines how it interacts with adjacent atoms to form the bonds that exist in solids. And as atoms bond to create a solid crystalline structure, the chemical and physical properties of that material are determined to a large extent by the type of bonding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... and the contraction that takes place after solidification as a result of solid-state contraction that most concerns die design and patternmaking. A sphere of molten metal solidifying without risering is an easily understood example of the diverse ways in which shrinkage forms. Once the shell of the sphere has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... that occurs on the waterwall tubes of supercritical coal-fired boilers fired under low NOx combustion conditions, conducive to the production of sulfidizing environments. In the other case, stress contributes to brittle fracture in the form of intergranular cracking. The phenomenon, which is known by various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... that helps in preventing thermal fatigue failures. An extension of the DS process was the development of the single-crystal process in which a single crystal grows to form the entire blade. To develop a DS structure, it is necessary for the dendrites (grains) to grow from one end of the casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... for medium volume requirements. Metal patterns are also required for both cores and molds produced by the shell process. Wax Patterns Wax patterns are used in the investment, or lost wax, molding process. These processes use dies to form the patterns. The wax patterns are coated with a ceramic slurry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... process until the preset discard length is reached. A shell that adheres to the container wall is formed between the dummy block and the container wall. At the end of the extrusion process the stem is withdrawn. The container is then opened far enough to allow the section to be sawn and a discard tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... magnesium alloys to improve the corrosion resistance. Additions of zirconium form finely dispersed zirconium oxides that act as the nuclei for a fine-grain structure and thus increases the tensile strength of magnesium alloys with no reduction in the elongation. Cerium also increases the fine-grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Application : production of large quantities of complex structural shapes from sheet; channels, gutters, welded pipes, and tubing. Fig. 2.7 Roll forming (contour roll forming). Source: Ref 2.4 Roll Bending Roll bending gives a curvature to a sheet, bar or shaped section by bending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.9781627082808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... used to toughen fiber-reinforced composites are core-shell particles with a shell that is compatible and may also be reactive with the matrix, and a cross-linked rubber or thermoplastic core that does not dissolve. The size of the core-shell particles is usually smaller than the phases formed from RLP...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... A significant portion of the structural characteristics of steel products are directly linked to the changes that occur during solidification. These features suffer relatively little change during further processing of the cast products. In the case of wrought products subjected to forming, in particular hot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... It presents four rules that give a qualitative estimate of the ability of two metals to form substitutional solid solutions: relative size factor, chemical affinity factor, relative valency factor, and lattice type factor. The chapter provides information on alloys that form an ordered structure during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...-production process. 3.4.3 Shell Mold Casting In shell mold casting, molten metal is poured into a shell of resin-bonded sand only 0.4 to 0.8 in. (10 to 20 mm) thick. The mold is formed by introducing the chemically coated sand to a heated pattern that thermally cures the bond. By controlling the core...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... of grain refiners ( Ref 11 ). The addition of rare earth elements is proposed as a method to improve grain refiner efficiency ( Ref 12 ). Fig. 8 Different grain structure formed in billet casting A typical example of a photomacrograph of transverse cross sections of the ten 7016 alloy billets...