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Scale (corrosion)

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Published: 01 March 2001
Fig. 4 Mill scale forming a corrosion cell on steel More
Image
Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.110 Oil-ash corrosion in low-alloy steel tube: (a) scale formation, (b) wall thinning More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 22 Heavy buildup of corrosion scale on weathering steel structural members in conditions of poor air circulation, high humidity, and no wetting/drying More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 23 Heavy corrosion scale buildup on structural members of weathering steel at a packet where water could collect and stand More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 15 Mill scale forming a corrosion cell on steel. The resulting electrochemical action will corrode (pit) the steel without affecting the mill scale. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.71 Scanning electron micrograph showing the corrosion scale (mainly NiF 2 with some CrF 3 , as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis) formed on alloy N after testing in HF for 115 h at 650 °C (1200 °F). Source: Ref 72 . Courtesy of Glyn Marsh More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 15.8 Breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) leading to galvanic corrosion of steel More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 15 On-line, real-time correlation between corrosion rate (left scale), pitting tendencies (right scale), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth (dotted curve). Note: Annotations for short-term process information for H 2 S concentration and imposed aeration. Source: Ref 61 More
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.46 Corrosion scales formed on MA956 (left picture) and HR160 (right picture) after exposure at 600 °C (1112 °F) for 2000 h in CO-32H 2 -3.8CO 2 -0.2H 2 S. For MA956, the oxide scale (in black) was a mixed Cr-Al-rich oxide scale with the outer layer being chromium-rich oxide scale More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Water chemistry is a factor in nearly all boiler tube failures. It contributes to the formation of scale, biofilms, and sludge, determines deposition rates, and drives the corrosion process. This chapter explains how water chemistry is managed in boilers and describes the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... This type of corrosion is referred to as tarnishing, high-temperature oxidation, scaling, or gaseous corrosion. As shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 1 ), the rate of attack (in terms of weight gain) increases substantially with temperature for many steels and stainless steel alloys. The surface film typically...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... (as low as 250 °C, or 480 °F) and they dissolve the protective magnetite layer, resulting in corrosion of the tube surfaces ( Ref 6.1 ). Scale formation and wall thinning of low-alloy steel tubes due to oil-ash corrosion is displayed in Fig. 6.110 . Oil-ash corrosion can be combated by addition of MgO...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to occur, the stress must be high enough to crack or break the protective magnetite scale. Additionally, the boiler water has to be corrosive in nature. In other words, the boiler water chemistry is such that either the oxygen concentration of the water is high or there is deviation in pH of the water from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... In view of their insulating nature, scales raise the tube wall temperature and eventually lead to failure of the tube by overheating. Therefore, optimizing BFW purity is the first step toward minimizing corrosion and deposition in the boiler. Treatment of feedwater brings down the level of total dissolved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... alloys, discusses the formation of oxide scale in the presence of mixed gases, and explains how alloy composition contributes to oxide growth. The chapter discusses the underlying chemistry of hot corrosion, how to identify its effects, and how it progresses under various conditions. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to the poor quality of the welding; the joining of internal defects on account of flue gas (hot) corrosion on the OD surface and operational and start-up–shutdown cyclic stresses finally led to leakage. Failures Related to Cleaning Buildup of scales on the water side of a boiler is an inevitable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... corrosion and other materials issues in coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, ash deposits on the metal surface can sometimes turn an oxidizing condition in the gaseous environment into a reducing condition beneath the deposits. In most cases, alloys rely on oxide scales to resist sulfidation attack; most...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.20 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered electron image) showing the corrosion scales formed on the fireside of the tube sample (shown in Fig. 10.19 ). The chemical compositions of the corrosion scales at different locations were analyzed semiquantitatively by energy dispersive More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... chemically or electrolytically. The surface can be altered on an atomic basis, sometimes producing profoundly different mechanical and corrosion-resistant properties. All of these are discussed in this chapter. Function of Surface Treatments Removal of Oxide Scale Oxide scales form on stainless...