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Reformer tubes

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in preventing internal tube partial pressure of hydrogen in the system. For deposits and hydrogen attack (Ref 3). hydrotreating, reforming, and hydrocracking units, steel can suffer hydrogen attack at tem- 17.3 Hydrogen Attack in Petroleum peratures above approximately 260 °C (500 °F) Refining and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... alloyed grade. The upgraded material may have greater strength, allowing redesign of the component to a lighter section. Table 22-5 compares a number of different materials suitable for reformer tubes, which were originally made with HK40 alloy. The alternative materials cost from 50 to 140% more than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... on the waterwall tubes of supercritical coal-fired boilers fired under low NOx combustion conditions, conducive to the production of sulfidizing environments. In the other case, stress contributes to brittle fracture in the form of intergranular cracking. The phenomenon, which is known by various names, typically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Some investigators have reported excellent performance of “50Cr-50Ni” alloy as tube supports in furnaces or boilers fired with fuel oils containing sulfur and vanadium. Spafford ( Ref 27 ) reported good performance of the 50Ni-50Cr alloy in refinery heaters for coking and catalytic reformer units...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... to as “erosion-corrosion.” Materials problems that are caused by erosion or erosion-corrosion in industries are numerous. In the petrochemical industry, the pyrolysis furnace tubes for the production of ethylene are a good example. Ethylene is produced by cracking petroleum feedstocks, such as ethane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... in internal combustion engines, power plant equipment, petroleum refinery furnaces, aerospace structures, and steam-reformer tubes. Generally, the type of failure in these applications is established by examination of fracture surfaces and comparison of operating conditions in which the failure occurred...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion resistance, these are often overlaid with stainless steels such as type 347. Other applications for low-alloy steels are furnace tubes, heat-exchangers shells, piping, and separator drums. Stainless Steels Stainless steels are extensively used in petrochemical plants because of the highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., intended to reduce NOx emissions, accelerates tube wall wastage. It also covers circumferential cracking in furnace waterwalls, thermal fatigue cracking induced by waterlances and water cannons, superheater-reheater corrosion, and erosion in fluidized-bed boilers. coal-fired boilers combustion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... to a relatively low temperature in feedwater heaters and pumped into tubes contained in a boiler. The water is heated to steam by the heat of combustion of pulverized coal in the boiler and then superheated. Superheated and pressurized steam is then allowed to expand in a high-pressure (HP) steam turbine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... by adequate inhibition (short cleaning times with sufficient inhibitor at low enough temperature) and by specification of full-finished welded tubing (in which the δ-ferrite networks within the weld metal structure are altered by cold work and a recrystallizing anneal). The latter condition can easily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or corrodent °C °F Chemical/petrochemical Ethylene steam cracking furnace tubes to 1000 to 1830 Carburization, oxidation Steam reforming tubes to 1000 to 1830 Oxidation, carburization Vinyl chloride crackers to 650 to 1200 Halide gas Hydrocracking heaters, reactors to 550...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... for the base metal. Low carbon helps to minimize the effects of sensitization, and the nitrogen slows the precipitation kinetics associated with the segregation of chromium and molybdenum during the welding operation. Nitrogen also enhances the reformation of austenite in the HAZ and weld metal during cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... °C (1565 °F) at the outside of the reformer furnace, was found to show extensive blocky precipitates along grain boundaries and acicular precipitates in the matrix in the vicinity of cracks at the tube outer-diameter side (exposed to air). Samples were cut from this pigtail section and solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and was replaced by iron-rich oxides, nickel-rich sulfides, and chromium-rich sulfides, as illustrated in Fig. 7.2(b) . The alloy matrix beneath the corrosion products was found to be severely depleted of chromium, as shown in Fig. 7.2(b) . Fig. 7.1 Alloy 601 tube suffering localized sulfidation attack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 1100 °C (2010 °F) for 520 h in carbon granulate (pack carburization test). Source: Ref 47 The focus thus far has been primarily on alloys used in ethylene cracking and steam hydrocarbon reforming operations. Most of the alloys are cast alloys used for furnace tubes. A variety of wrought alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... in the acceleration zone of the roll gap as well as in the cross rolling process used to pierce blanks in the rolling of steel tubes. These tensile forces cause problems in the rolled product if the deformation conditions are not optimized. The benefits of this three-dimensional compression in terms of deformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...