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Reformer furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Some investigators have reported excellent performance of “50Cr-50Ni” alloy as tube supports in furnaces or boilers fired with fuel oils containing sulfur and vanadium. Spafford ( Ref 27 ) reported good performance of the 50Ni-50Cr alloy in refinery heaters for coking and catalytic reformer units...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... to as “erosion-corrosion.” Materials problems that are caused by erosion or erosion-corrosion in industries are numerous. In the petrochemical industry, the pyrolysis furnace tubes for the production of ethylene are a good example. Ethylene is produced by cracking petroleum feedstocks, such as ethane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... and resistance to hot corrosion up to 2100 °F (1150 °C). They are used in reformers for the production of ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen, in steam superheaters, ethylene pyrolysis coil assemblies, tube supports and hangers, heat-treatment fixtures, furnace rolls, and rabble arms. Grade HL with higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... °C (1565 °F) at the outside of the reformer furnace, was found to show extensive blocky precipitates along grain boundaries and acicular precipitates in the matrix in the vicinity of cracks at the tube outer-diameter side (exposed to air). Samples were cut from this pigtail section and solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... on hardenability and tempering response. It discusses the significance of critical temperatures, the use of transformation diagrams, and types of annealing treatments. It also provides information on heat treating furnaces, the effect of heating rate on transformation temperatures, quench and temper procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... undesirable reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses material-related problems associated with coal-fired burners. It explains how high temperatures affect heat-absorbing surfaces in furnace combustion areas and in the convection pass of superheaters and reheaters. It describes how low-NOx combustion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... Oxidizing environments that contain high concentrations of SO 2 can be produced in the chemical process used to manufacture sulfuric acid. Sulfur, in this case, is used as a feedstock. Combustion of sulfur with excess air takes place in a sulfur furnace at about 1150 to 1200 °C (2100 to 2200 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion resistance, these are often overlaid with stainless steels such as type 347. Other applications for low-alloy steels are furnace tubes, heat-exchangers shells, piping, and separator drums. Stainless Steels Stainless steels are extensively used in petrochemical plants because of the highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... with different silicon levels tested at 1100 °C (2010 °F) for 520 h in carbon granulate (pack carburization test). Source: Ref 47 The focus thus far has been primarily on alloys used in ethylene cracking and steam hydrocarbon reforming operations. Most of the alloys are cast alloys used for furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... of hydrogen contamination include: Atmosphere Incompletely dried refractories Remelt ingot, master alloys, metallurgical metals, and other charge components Fluxes Tools, flux tubes, and ladles Products of combustion (POCs) in gas-fired furnaces Hydrogen can be introduced through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., exhaust valves and manifolds in internal combustion engines, power plant equipment, petroleum refinery furnaces, aerospace structures, and steam-reformer tubes. Generally, the type of failure in these applications is established by examination of fracture surfaces and comparison of operating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Abstract Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... such as cerium. Classification of Stainless Steels In steelmaking, when the molten metal is first poured into molds, it becomes, on cooling, either an ingot or a casting. Use of the term ingot is reserved for furnace output in molded form destined for shaping into a marketable material by mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... (a) intergranular crack propagation in the furnace-cooled alloy and (b) transgranular propagation in the water-quenched material. Source: Ref 9.26 The effect of heat treatment on SCC may also depend on the SCC environment. Artificial aging of cold rolled AZ61 sheet improved SCC resistance when tested...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... … Hydroprocessing Stabilizer overheads X X Effluent X … Alkylation (H 2 SO 4 ) Deisobutanizer tower overhead X X Debutanizer overhead X X Depropanizer overhead X X Alkylation (HF) Debutanizer overhead X … Depropanizer overhead X … Catalytic reformer Light ends stripper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...) in continuous service. Scaling becomes excessive above approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in intermittent service. Turbine blades and highly stressed sections in gas turbines, furnace parts, and burners operating below 650 °C (1200 °F), valve parts, cutlery, fasteners, hardware, oil refinery equipment, mining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9